Sima

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Sima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae
Genus: Sima
Roger, 1863
Type species
Sima compressa (junior synonym of Tetraponera allaborans)

Tetraponera allaborans casent0103239 profile 1.jpg

Tetraponera allaborans casent0103239 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

This genus is not in use as it is currently considered to be a junior synonym of Tetraponera.

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • SIMA [junior synonym of Tetraponera]
    • Sima Roger, 1863a: 178. Type-species: Sima compressa (junior synonym of Pseudomyrma allaborans), by monotypy.
    • [Type-species not Eciton rufonigrum, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1915b: 266, repeated in Emery, 1917a: 95 Emery, 1921f: 22.]
    • Sima revived status as genus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 53; Emery, 1917a: 95; Forel, 1917: 240; Emery, 1921f: 21.
    • Sima junior synonym of Tetraponera: Smith, F. 1877b: 68; Donisthorpe, 1916b: 244; Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 47; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 105; Ward, 1990: 470.


References

  • Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 159-270 (page 173, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini; Sima as genus)
  • Ashmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Can. Entomol. 37: 381-384 (page 383, Sima in Myrmicidae, Pseudomyrminae)
  • Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. (page 107, Sima as genus)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 136, Sima as junior synonym of Tetraponera [Type-species not Ection rufonigrum, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1915b: 266])
  • Dalla Torre, K. W. von. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. (page 53, Sima in Myrmicinae ; Sima as genus)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1916d. Synonymy of some genera of ants. [part]. Entomol. Rec. J. Var. 28: 241-244 (page 244, Sima as junior synonym of Tetraponera)
  • Donisthorpe, H. 1943g. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [part]. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11(10): 617-688 (page 726, Sima as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9: 67-83 (page 81, Sima in Myrmicidae, Myrmeciidae)
  • Emery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. Geogr. Biol. Tiere 8: 685-778 (page 768, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini)
  • Emery, C. 1900c. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. [part]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 40[=(2(20): 661-688 (page 672, Sima as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rend. Sess. R. Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna Cl. Sci. Fis. (n.s.) 18: 29-42 (page 40, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini; Sima as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1915a. Contributo alla conoscenza delle formiche delle isole italiane. Descrizione di forme mediterrannee nuove o critiche. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 46[=(3)(6): 244-270 (page 266, Sima as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1917a. Questions de nomenclature et synonymies relatives à quelques genres et espèces de Formicides (Hym.). Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1917: 94-97 (page 95, Sima as genus)
  • Emery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 94: 1-94 + 7 (page 21, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini; Sima as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 37: 161-167 (page 164, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 240, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini; Sima as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 13: 385-460 (page 453, Sima as genus)
  • Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. (page 25, Sima in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1866b. Diagnosen neuer und wenig gekannter Formiciden. Verh. K-K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 16: 885-908 (page 906, Sima in Myrmicinae [Myrmicidae])
  • Mayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beitr. Naturkd. Preuss. 1: 1-102 (page 100, Sima as genus)
  • Roger, J. 1863a. Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegebenen Beschreibungen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7: 131-214 (page 178, Sima as genus [Type-species not Eciton rufonigrum, unjustified subsequent designation by Emery, 1915b: 266, repeated in Emery, 1921f: 22.] )
  • Smith, F. 1871a. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. With introductory remarks by A. R. Wallace. [part]. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 11: 285-348 (page 328, Sima in Myrmicidae)
  • Smith, F. 1877b. Descriptions of new species of the genera Pseudomyrma and Tetraponera, belonging to the family Myrmicidae. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1877: 57-72 (page 68, Sima as junior synonym of Tetraponera)
  • Ward, P. S. 1990. The ant subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): generic revision and relationship to other formicids. Syst. Entomol. 15: 449-489 (page 470, Sima as junior synonym of Tetraponera; Sima as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1915i [1914]. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schr. Phys.-Ökon. Ges. Königsb. 55: 1-142 (page 40, Sima in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1920. The subfamilies of Formicidae, and other taxonomic notes. Psyche (Camb.) 27: 46-55 (page 47, Sima as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 105, Sima as genus)