Recurvidris recurvispinosa

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Recurvidris recurvispinosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Recurvidris
Species: R. recurvispinosa
Binomial name
Recurvidris recurvispinosa
(Forel, 1890)

Recurvidris recurvispinosa casent0010681 profile 1.jpg

Recurvidris recurvispinosa casent0010681 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels

Common Name
Kakubara-ari
Language: Japanese

Recurvidris recurvispinosa is the most widely distributed member of the genus. In Thailand it occurs in areas north of the Isthmus of Kra and in various types of forest such as dry evergreen forest, mixed deciduous forest and dry dipterocarp forest (Jaitrong and Wiwatwitaya 2015), while in Japan this rarely encountered species nests in soil or under stones in forests or forest margins(Japanese Ant Image Database). In India, Harshana & Dey (2021) collected this species from leaf litter and on the forest floor near a tree base. They found the collembolan Sminthurides parvulus (Krausbauer, 1898) within the mandibles of one specimen, suggesting that these ants feed on small arthropods in leaf litter and soil.

Identification

Jaitrong and Wiwatwitaya (2015) - Recurvidris recurvispinosa is closely related to Recurvidris hebe (Sulawesi) in having 4-dentate mandibles, and the basal mandibular tooth being enlarged and bidenticulate apically. R. recurvispinosa differs from R. hebe in the following points: in profile propodeal spine and petiolar peduncle relatively short and stout (relatively long and narrow in R. hebe); with head in full-face view, occipital corners round (more broadly round in R. hebe); mesosoma finely reticulate-punctate to reticulate-granular (superficially sculptured in R. hebe).

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Recurvidris recurvispinosa is distributed from India, through China, to Taiwan and Japan. In Japan it has been recorded only from Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands in the Yaeyama Island Group (Japanese Ant Image Database).


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 32.7496° to -8.4203°.

   
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Oriental Region: India (type locality), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.
Palaearctic Region: China, Japan.

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • recurvispinosa. Trigonogaster recurvispinosus Forel, 1890b: cix, fig. (w.) INDIA. Wheeler, W.M. 1927d: 5 (m.). Combination in Recurvidris: Bolton, 1992: 46. See also: Sheela, et al. 2000: 95.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Jaitrong and Wiwatwitaya (2015) - (n = 15). TL 1.70-1.85 mm, HW 0.36-0.41 mm, HL 0.41-0.43 mm, SL 0.33-0.35 mm, PW 0.21-0.25 mm, ML 0.53-0.54 mm, CI 85-96, SI 87-95.

Head in full-face view narrow, subreticular and slightly longer than broad, with posterior margin almost straight or feebly concave. Eye 0.10 mm in maximum diameter, with 6-7 ommatidia along longest axis. Antennal scape extending posteriorly slightly beyond posterolateral corner of head. Masticatory margin of mandible with four sharp teeth, fourth (basal) tooth enlarged and bidenticulate; basal margin of mandible unarmed. Propodeal spine stout, upcurved. Clypeus with distinct paired carinae, its anterior margin weakly convex. Mesosoma relatively slender; promesonotum in profile weakly convex dorsally and sloping gradually to metanotal groove. Propodeum in profile with feebly convex dorsal outline; recurved propodeal spine long and narrow. Propodeal declivity with infradental lamella or ridge linking propodeal spine to metapleural lobe. Peduncle of petiole relatively short, with its dorsal outline distinctly concave and ending posteriorly in blunt angle, its ventral outline convex. Subpetiolar process varying from a tooth to short spine.

Dorsa of head and mesosoma usually finely reticulate-punctate to reticulate-granular; on head the sculpture usually weaker on dorsum behind frontal lobes, and stronger posteriorly and laterally. Sculpture on pronotum much weaker than that on head. Petiole finely reticulate. Postpetiole superficially reticulate. Gaster smooth and shiny.

Head with relatively sparse short hairs; promesonotum with sparse short hairs (less than ten hairs); longest pronotal hairs 0.07 mm long. Hairs absent from propodeal dorsum. Petiole with two dorsal pairs of short hairs. Postpetiole with two dorsal pairs and one ventrolateral pair of short hairs. Body colour yellow to yellowish brown.

Type Material

Jaitrong and Wiwatwitaya (2015) - Syntype workers from India, Poona (R.C. Wroughton) (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève).

References

  • Bharti H., A. A. Wachkoo, and R. Kumar. 2017. First inventory of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Northwestern Shivalik, India. Halteres 8: 33-68.
  • Bharti H., B. Guenard, M. Bharti, & E. P. Economo. 2015. An updated checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of India with their specific distributions in Indian states. Zookeys
  • Bharti H., Y. P. Sharma, M. Bharti, and M. Pfeiffer. 2013. Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecology 5: 79-101.
  • Bolton B. 1992. A review of the ant genus Recurvidris (Hym: Formicidae), a new name for Trigonogaster Forel. Psyche 99: 35-48.
  • Brassard, F., Leong, C.-M., Chan, H.-H., Guénard, B. 2021. High diversity in urban areas: How comprehensive sampling reveals high ant species richness within one of the most urbanized regions of the world. Diversity 13, 358 (doi:10.3390/d13080358).
  • Chapman, J. W., and Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monogr. Inst. Sci. Technol. Manila 1: 1-327
  • Chen P., Y. Su, S. S. Rao, Y. F. Long, and C. H. Du. 2012. Study on the ant diversity in different Illicium verum stands. Journal of West China Forestry Science 41(1): 60-68.
  • Dad J. M., S. A. Akbar, H. Bharti, and A. A. Wachkoo. 2019. Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites ofWestern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 39: 219-228.
  • Dias R. K. S., and K. R. K. Anuradha Kosgamage. 2012. Occurrence and species diversity of ground-dwelling worker ants (Family: Formicidae) in selected lands in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 7: 55-72.
  • Dias R. K. S., and R. P. K. C. Rajapaksa. 2016. Geographic records of subfamilies, genera and species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the four climatic zones of Sri Lanka: a review. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 11(2): 23-45.
  • Dias R. K. S., K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora
  • Dias, R.K.S., Kosgamage, K.R.K.A. 2013. Occurrence and species diversity of ground-dwelling worker ants (Family: Formicidae) in selected lands in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka 7: 55-72 (doi:10.4038/josuk.v7i0.6233).
  • Dias, R.K.S., Rajapaksa, R.P.K.C. 2017. Geographic records of subfamilies, genera and species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the four climatic zones of Sri Lanka: A review. Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka 11, 23-45. (doi:10.4038/josuk.v11i2.7999).
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insect
  • Forel A. 1890. Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 34: cii-cxiv.
  • Forel A. 1903. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 679-715.
  • Forel, A. 1890b. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 34:lxi-lxxvi. (page cix, fig. worker described)
  • Ghosh S. N., A. Chattopadhyay, and D. K. Bhattacharyya. 2007. Studies on roadside soil inhabiting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Kolkata with reference to the effects of lead emitted through automobile exhaust. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occ. Paper 257: 1
  • Ghosh S. N., S. Sheela, and B. G. Kundu. 2005. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rabindra Sarovar, Kolkata. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional Paper 234: 1-40.
  • Guenard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Harshana, A., Dey, D. 2021. First record of Recurvidris recurvispinosa (Forel, 1890) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) from central India. Journal of Entomological Research 45, 347–350 (doi:10.5958/0974-4576.2021.00054.2).
  • Jaitrong W., and T. Ting-Nga. 2005. Ant fauna of Peninsular Botanical Garden (Khao Chong), Trang Province, Southern Thailand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(2): 137-147.
  • Jaitrong W., B. Guenard, E. P. Economo, N. Buddhakala, and S. Yamane. 2016. A checklist of known ant species of Laos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecology 8: 1-32. DOI: 10.20362/am.008019
  • Jaitrong W.; Nabhitabhata, J. 2005. A list of known ant species of Thailand. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(1): 9-54.
  • Jaitrong, W. and Wiwatwitaya, D. 2015. The species of the ant genus Recurvidris Bolton, 1992 in Thailand. Halteres. 6:104-112.
  • Kugler C. 1986. Stings of ants of the tribe Pheidologetini (Myrmicinae). Insecta Mundi 1: 221-230.
  • Leong C. M., S. F. Shiao, and B. Guenard. 2017. Ants in the city, a preliminary checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Macau, one of the most heavily urbanized regions of the world. Asian Myrmecology 9: e009014.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Liu K. L., M. H. Peng, Y. C. Hung, and K. B. Neoh. 2019. Effects of park size, peri-urban forest spillover, and environmental filtering on diversity, structure, and morphology of ant assemblages in urban park. Urban Ecosystems https://doi.org/10.1007/s112
  • Liu, C., Fischer, G., Hita Garcia, F., Yamane, S., Liu, Q., Peng, Y.Q., Economo, E.P., Guénard, B., Pierce, N.E. 2020. Ants of the Hengduan Mountains: a new altitudinal survey and updated checklist for Yunnan Province highlight an understudied insect biodiversity hotspot. ZooKeys 978, 1–171 (doi:10.3897/zookeys.978.55767).
  • Lopwichan S., and S. Khachonpisitsak. 2015. Ant diversity in Nong Tha Yu Arboretum, Si Racha District, Chon Buri Province. Proceedings The 7 th National Science Research Conference. 30-31 March 2015. Naresuan University.
  • Mathew R. 2003. On Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Nongkhyllem Wild Life Sanctuary, Ri-Bhoi District, Meghalaya. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 101:195-207.
  • Mathew R., and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 251-409 in: Director; Zoological Survey of India (ed.) 2000. Fauna of of Meghalaya. Part 7. [State Fauna Series 4.] Insecta 2000. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 621 pp.
  • Musthak Ali T. M. 1992. Ant Fauna of Karnataka-2. Newsletter of IUSSI Indian Chapter 6(1-2): 1-9.
  • Narendra A., H. Gibb, and T. M. Ali. 2011. Structure of ant assemblages in Western Ghats, India: role of habitat, disturbance and introduced species. Insect Conservation and diversity 4(2): 132-141.
  • Onishi Y., W. Jaitrong, P. Suttiprapan, S. Buranapanichpan, Y. Chanbang, and F. Ito. 2016. Ant species diversity in coffee plantation in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 10(1): 33-48.
  • Parui A. K., S. Chatterjee, and P. Basu. 2015. Habitat characteristics shaping ant species assemblages in a mixed deciduous forest in Eastern India. Journal of Tropical Ecology: 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0266467415000036
  • Rajan P. D., M. Zacharias, and T. M. Mustak Ali. 2006. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (Karnataka). Conservation Area Series, Zool. Surv. India.i-iv,27: 153-188.
  • Ramachandra T. V., M. D. Subash Chandran, N. V. Joshi, A. Narendra, and T. M. Ali. 2012. Ant species composition and diversity in the Sharavathi Rivers basin, central Western Ghats. Sahyadri Conservation Series 3, ENVIS Technical Report 20. 51 pages.
  • Sheela S., and A. Chattopadhyay. 2012. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Formicidae. Zool. Surv. India. Fauna of Maharashtra, State Fauna Series 20(2): 567-586.
  • Sheela S., T. C. Narendran, and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Redescription of a little known myrmicine ant Recurvidris recurvispinosa (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Records of the Zoological Survey of India 98: 93-98.
  • Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
  • Tak N., and S. L. Kazmi. 2011. On a collection of Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Uttarakhand. Rec. zool. Surv. India : 111(2) : 39-49.
  • Terayama M. 2004. On the foraging behavior of Recurvidris recurvispinosa(Forel, 1890). Tsunekibachi 2: 6.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Varghese T. 2004. Taxonomic studies on ant genera of the Indian Institute of Science campus with notes on their nesting habits. Pp. 485-502 in : Rajmohana, K.; Sudheer, K.; Girish Kumar, P.; Santhosh, S. (eds.) 2004. Perspectives on biosystematics and bio
  • Wheeler W. M. 1927. Chinese ants collected by Professor S. F. Light and Professor N. Gist Gee. American Museum Novitates 255: 1-12.
  • Wu, J. & Wang, C. 1992. Formicidae (pp. 1301-1320). In Peng, J. et al. Iconography of Forest Insects in Hunan, China. Forest Bureau of Hunan Province: 1473 pp. Hunan Scientific and Technical Publishing House.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
  • Zhao S., F. L. Jia, G. Q. Liang, Y. L. Ke, W. J. Tian. 2009. Ants and their distribution in Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Environmental Entomology 31(2): 156-161.
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Bharti H., Y. P. Sharma, M. Bharti, and M. Pfeiffer. 2013. Ant species richness, endemicity and functional groups, along an elevational gradient in the Himalayas. Asian Myrmecology 5: 79-101.
  • Bolton B. 1992. A review of the ant genus Recurvidris (Hym: Formicidae), a new name for Trigonogaster Forel. Psyche 99: 35-48.
  • Chen P., Y. Su, S. S. Rao, Y. F. Long, and C. H. Du. 2012. Study on the ant diversity in different Illicium verum stands. Journal of West China Forestry Science 41(1): 60-68.
  • Dad J. M., S. A. Akbar, H. Bharti, and A. A. Wachkoo. 2019. Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites ofWestern Ghats, India. Acta Ecologica Sinica 39: 219–228.
  • Dias R. K. S., K. R. K. A. Kosgamage, and H. A. W. S. Peiris. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Ants (Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Formicidae) in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. p11-19.
  • Dias R. K. S., and K. R. K. Anuradha Kosgamage. 2012. Occurrence and species diversity of ground-dwelling worker ants (Family: Formicidae) in selected lands in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 7: 55-72.
  • Dias R. K. S., and R. P. K. C. Rajapaksa. 2016. Geographic records of subfamilies, genera and species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the four climatic zones of Sri Lanka: a review. J. Sci. Univ. Kelaniya 11(2): 23-45.
  • Fontanilla A. M., A. Nakamura, Z. Xu, M. Cao, R. L. Kitching, Y. Tang, and C. J. Burwell. 2019. Taxonomic and functional ant diversity along tropical, subtropical, and subalpine elevational transects in southwest China. Insects 10, 128; doi:10.3390/insects10050128
  • Ghosh S. N., S. Sheela, and B. G. Kundu. 2005. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rabindra Sarovar, Kolkata. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional Paper 234: 1-40.
  • Guénard B., and R. R. Dunn. 2012. A checklist of the ants of China. Zootaxa 3558: 1-77.
  • Hua Li-zhong. 2006. List of Chinese insects Vol. IV. Pages 262-273. Sun Yat-sen university Press, Guangzhou. 539 pages.
  • Jaitrong W., B. Guenard, E. P. Economo, N. Buddhakala, and S. Yamane. 2016. A checklist of known ant species of Laos (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Asian Myrmecology 8: 1-32. DOI: 10.20362/am.008019
  • Jaitrong W., and D. Wiwatwitaya. 2015. The species of the ant genus Recurvidris Bolton, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Thailand. Halteres 6: 104-112.
  • Jaitrong W., and T. Ting-Nga. 2005. Ant fauna of Peninsular Botanical Garden (Khao Chong), Trang Province, Southern Thailand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(2): 137-147.
  • Kugler C. 1986. Stings of ants of the tribe Pheidologetini (Myrmicinae). Insecta Mundi 1: 221-230.
  • Leong C. M., S. F. Shiao, and B. Guenard. 2017. Ants in the city, a preliminary checklist of Formicidae (Hymenoptera) in Macau, one of the most heavily urbanized regions of the world. Asian Myrmecology 9: e009014.
  • Li Q., Y. Chen, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhu, and S. Wang. 2009. Diversity of ants in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Pu'er City, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science 17(3): 233-239.
  • Li Z.h. 2006. List of Chinese Insects. Volume 4. Sun Yat-sen University Press
  • Liu K. L., M. H. Peng, Y. C. Hung, and K. B. Neoh. 2019. Effects of park size, peri-urban forest spillover, and environmental filtering on diversity, structure, and morphology of ant assemblages in urban park. Urban Ecosystems https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00851-z)
  • Lopwichan S., and S. Khachonpisitsak. 2015. Ant diversity in Nong Tha Yu Arboretum, Si Racha District, Chon Buri Province. Proceedings The 7 th National Science Research Conference. 30-31 March 2015. Naresuan University.
  • Mathew R., and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Pp. 251-409 in: Director; Zoological Survey of India (ed.) 2000. Fauna of of Meghalaya. Part 7. [State Fauna Series 4.] Insecta 2000. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 621 pp.
  • Narendra A., H. Gibb, and T. M. Ali. 2011. Structure of ant assemblages in Western Ghats, India: role of habitat, disturbance and introduced species. Insect Conservation and diversity 4(2): 132-141.
  • Parui A. K., S. Chatterjee, and P. Basu. 2015. Habitat characteristics shaping ant species assemblages in a mixed deciduous forest in Eastern India. Journal of Tropical Ecology: 1-14. doi:10.1017/S0266467415000036
  • Rajan P. D., M. Zacharias, and T. M. Mustak Ali. 2006. Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Fauna of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (Karnataka). Conservation Area Series, Zool. Surv. India.i-iv,27: 153-188.
  • Sheela S., T. C. Narendran, and R. N. Tiwari. 2000. Redescription of a little known myrmicine ant Recurvidris recurvispinosa (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Records of the Zoological Survey of India 98: 93-98.
  • Song Y., Z. Xu, C. Li, N. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Mo. 2013. An Analysis on the Ant Fauna of the Nangun river Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China. Forest Research 26(6): 773-780.
  • Tak N., and S. L. Kazmi. 2011. On a collection of Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Uttarakhand. Rec. zool. Surv. India : 111(2) : 39-49.
  • Terayama M. 2004. On the foraging behavior of Recurvidris recurvispinosa(Forel, 1890). Tsunekibachi 2: 6
  • Terayama M. 2004. On the foraging behavior of Recurvidris recurvispinosa(Forel, 1890). Tsunekibachi 2: 6.
  • Terayama M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266.
  • Terayama M., S. Kubota, and K. Eguchi. 2014. Encyclopedia of Japanese ants. Asakura Shoten: Tokyo, 278 pp.
  • Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta; Hymenoptera). The Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University 17: 81-266.
  • Varghese T. 2004. Taxonomic studies on ant genera of the Indian Institute of Science campus with notes on their nesting habits. Pp. 485-502 in : Rajmohana, K.; Sudheer, K.; Girish Kumar, P.; Santhosh, S. (eds.) 2004. Perspectives on biosystematics and biodiversity. Prof. T.C. Narendran commemoration volume. Kerala: Systematic Entomology Research Scholars Association, xxii + 666 pp.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1927. Chinese ants collected by Professor S. F. Light and Professor N. Gist Gee. American Museum Novitates 255: 1-12.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1930. A list of the known Chinese ants. Peking Natural History Bulletin 5: 53-81.
  • Yamane S., S. Ikudome, and M. Terayama. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp, 138-317.
  • Yamane S.; Ikudome, S.; Terayama, M. 1999. Identification guide to the Aculeata of the Nansei Islands, Japan. Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press, xii + 831 pp. pp138-317.
  • Zhang R. J., L. W. Liang, and S. Y. Zhou. 2014. An analysis on the ant fauna of Nonggang Nature Reserve in Guangxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal university: Natural Science Edition 32(3): 86-93.
  • Zhou S.-Y. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, China, Guilin, China. 255 pp.