Pseudomyrmex peperi

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Pseudomyrmex peperi
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae
Genus: Pseudomyrmex
Species group: ferrugineus
Species: P. peperi
Binomial name
Pseudomyrmex peperi
(Forel, 1913)

Pseudomyrmex peperi casent0005797 profile 1.jpg

Pseudomyrmex peperi casent0005797 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels


Collected from Acacia chiapensis, A. collinsii, A. cornigera, A. gentlei, A. globulifera and A. hindsii. P. peperi is apparently polygynous over much of its range, and often occurs sympatrically with the commoner Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus. Some aspects of its biology in Mexico are discussed by Janzen (1967b) under the name "P. nigrocincta". (Ward 1993)

Photo Gallery

  • Pseudomyrmex peperi workers feeding on extrafloral nectaries of Acacia collinsii. Puerto Escondido Oaxaca, Mexico. Photo by Martin Heil.


Ward (1993) - P. peperi is recognized by the features mentioned above and in the key. The combination of small elongate head, broad posterolaterally angulate petiole, and matte head surface is found in no other acacia ant workers or queens.


Eastern Mexico to Nicaragua.

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 22.6° to 12.4333°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala (type locality), Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.





The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • convarians. Pseudomyrma spinicola r. convarians Forel, 1913l: 214 (w.) GUATEMALA. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 224. Junior synonym of peperi: Ward, 1989: 452.
  • peperi. Pseudomyrma peperi Forel, 1913l: 213 (w.) GUATEMALA. Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 222. Senior synonym of convarians, saffordi Enzmann: Ward, 1989: 452. See also: Ward, 1993: 146.
  • saffordi. Pseudomyrma sabanica var. saffordi Enzmann, E.V. 1944: 89 (w.) MEXICO. [The name sabanica is a misspelling of satanica.] [Unresolved junior primary homonym of saffordi Wheeler, above.] Junior synonym of saffordi Wheeler: Brown, 1949a: 42; of peperi: Ward, 1989: 452.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Ward (1993) - Ward (1993) - measurements (n = 53). —HL 0.86-1.13, HW 0.76-0.90, MFC 0.034-0.064, CI 0.76-0.89, REL 0.45-0.50, REL2 0.54-0.62, OOI 1.15-2.06, VI 0.59-0.79, FCI 0.042-0.071, SI 0.44-0.49, SI2 0.76-0.88, NI 0.62-0.71, PLI 0.54-0.65, PWI 0.63-0.75, PPWI 1.41-1.83.

Small species (HW < 0.92) with moderately elongate head; anterior margin of median clypeal lobe straight or slightly produced medially, laterally rounded or subangulate (never sharply angulate as in P. spinicola and P. satanicus). Palp formula 4,3, rarely 5p4,3. Frontal carinae separated by about basal scape width. In some workers basal and declivitous faces of propodeum are well differentiated and/or anteroventral tooth of petiole are prominent. Petiole and postpetiole broad, the former subtriangular in dorsal view with well developed posterolateral angles. Dorsum of head obscurely punctulate-coriarious, matte. Remainder of body with finely punctulate to punctulate-coriarious sculpture, opaque to sublucid; Propodeum lacking overlying rugulo-punctate sculpture seen in P. ferrugineus. Standing pilosity not especially abundant, sometimes lacking (worn?) on mesonotum. Appressed pubescence abundant but very fine. Light to medium brown, rarely dark brown, the gaster sometimes darker than the rest of body; appendages lighter.

Type Material

Ward (1993) - Syntype workers, Patulul, Guatemala (Peper) (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève) [Examined]. One syntype here designated LECTOTYPE.

Pseudomyrma spinicola race convarians Forel 1913:214. Syntype worker, Patulul, Guatemala (Peper) (MHNG) [Examined].

Pseudomyrma sabanica [sic] var. saffordi Enzmann 1945:89. Syntype workers, Yerba Santa, Chiapas, Mexico (G. N. Collins) (Museum of Comparative Zoology) [Examined] One syntype here designated LECTOTYPE.


References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Castano-Meneses, G., M. Vasquez-Bolanos, J. L. Navarrete-Heredia, G. A. Quiroz-Rocha, and I. Alcala-Martinez. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • Heil, M. 2013. Let the best one stay: screening of ant defenders by Acacia host plants functions independently of partner choice or host sanctions. Journal of Ecology 101: 684-688.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Mirmecofauna de la reserva ecologica de San Felipe Bacalar
  • Vasquez-Bolanos M. 2011. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Mexico. Dugesiana 18(1): 95-133.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133
  • Ward, P.S. 1993. Systematic studies on Pseudomyrmex acacia-ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2(1):117-168