Proceratium terraealtae

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Proceratium terraealtae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Proceratiinae
Tribe: Proceratiini
Genus: Proceratium
Species: P. terraealtae
Binomial name
Proceratium terraealtae
De Andrade, 2003

Proceratium terraealtae P casent0902417.jpg

Proceratium terraealtae D casent0902417.jpg

Specimen Label

The holotype was collected in the Cameron highlands.


A member of the silaceum clade, resembling Proceratium caledonicum, but differing from it in the worker, by the broader frontal carinae and by the SI > 70 instead of < 65. Proceratium terraealtae, for its smooth mesosoma and gaster, is apparently similar to two geographically distant species, i.e. Proceratium caledonicum and Proceratium politum, both from New Caledonia. It can be easily distinguished from both, among other characters, by the head more sculptured and by the denticulate sides of the propodeum. (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade 2003)

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Malaysia (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.


Explore-icon.png Explore Overview of Proceratium biology 
Very little is known about the biology of Proceratium ants. They nest in soil, rotten wood, under deep-set stones and, in a few cases, tree branches. For many species the nest consists of small rounded chambers hollowed out of soft rotten wood or in the soil. Toward the cooler limits of the range, particularly in North America, nests and foraging workers are found under deep set rocks instead of in rotten wood. The nest site is usually in forest shade, in old moist gardens, or similar habitats that are constantly moist. Some species of known to be egg predators of arthropods, especially of spiders.

Most Proceratium are relatively rare but this is not the full explanation for why they are not commonly collected. Colonies of most species are small. Based on anectdotal natural history information from a few species, it was once thought that most Proceratium would likely be found to have mature colonies that contain somewhere between 10 - 50 workers. Yet nests with more than 50, and in some cases up to 200, workers have been been reported. Besides small colonies, these ants also do not appear to forage in places where they are readily encountered.

Males and females are though to be produced in small numbers but we generally do not have enough data for colonies of any species to know what might be typical. Reproductive flights have been observered toward the end of the summer in some northern temperate areas. In these regions the nuptial flight occurs during the last half of August. Both sexes climb some distance from the nest entrance before taking flight. Workers too issue from the nest during the nuptial flight, as is often the case with otherwise cryptobiotic ants. ‎



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • terraealtae. Proceratium terraealtae De Andrade, in Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003b: 330, fig. 133 (w.) WEST MALAYSIA.
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Malaysia: Pahang, Cameron Highlands, xi.1987 (Wheatcroft).
    • Type-depository: BMNH.
    • Disribution: Malaysia (Peninsula).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Head slightly longer than broad and with the sides gently diverging posteriorly. Vertex in full face view weakly convex. Clypeus reduced and as long as the antennal sockets. Anterior border of the clypeus truncate. Frontal carinae broad and not covering the antennal insertions. Lateral expansions of the frontal carinae narrow, little raised, diverging on the two anterior fourths, converging on the third fourth, diverging and carinate only on the posterior fourth. Frontal area gently concave and with a marked longitudinal carina prolonging posteriorly. Head anterolaterally with a short, longitudinal carina. Genal carinae marked, each carina corresponding to the external border of a deep sulcus. Eyes visible as a dark dot below the integument, small and on the middle of the head sides. First funicular joint slightly broader than long. Funicular joints 2-10 broader than long. Last funicular joint as long as the sum of joints 6-10. Scapes short of the vertexal margin and gently thickening apically. Masticatory margin of the mandibles with 8 denticles before the pointed apical tooth. Palp formula 2,2.

Mesosoma weakly convex in profile, shorter than maximum head length (mandibles included). Protlotal and propodeal sutures absent. Basal face of the propodeum declivous posteriorly. Area between basal and declivous faces of the propodeum weakly concave and denticulate on each side. Declivous face of the propodeum sloping posteriorly. Sides of the declivous face of the propodeum weakly marginate. Propodeal spiracle round and above mid height in lateral view.

Petiole subrectangular and not very thick, its anterior border straight and anterolaterally carinate. Ventral process of the petiole large, triangular and curved posteriorly. Postpetiole less than 1/3 shorter than gastral tergite I, with the anterior half diverging and the posterior half gently convex in dorsal view. Postpetiolar sternite anteromedially with a marked subtriangular projection and gently convex posteriorly in profile. Constriction between postpetiole and gaster impressed. Gastral tergite 1 convex on the curvature. Remaining gastral tergites and sternites curved ventrally.

Legs not very elongate. All tibiae with a pectinate spur. Spurs of fore legs without basal spine. Fore basitarsi longer than the mid ones. Hind basitarsi about 1/4 shorter than hind tibiae. Second tarsomere of hind legs shorter than pretarsus. Pretarsal claws simple. Arolia absent.

Sculpture. Body largely shining. Head densely punctate and with sparse, thin, irregular rugosities. Area below the eyes and ventral part of the head reticulorugose. Mesosoma, petiole, postpetiole, gaster and legs minutely punctate.

Body covered by hairs of three main types: (1) short, dense, suberect or subdecumbent on the whole body, sparse on the funicular joints; (2) longer than type (1), erect on the whole body, absent on the antennae; (3) shorter than hair type (1), dense and decumbent on the funicular joints only. In addition the funicular joints bear whitish, thick, appressed, sparse hairs, and the scapes with sparse hairs similar to type (2) but shorter.

Colour. Light brown with lighter legs.

Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 2.72-2.86; HL 0.65-0.67; HW 0.62-0.65; EL 0.03-0.04; SL 0.46-0.48; WL 0.76-0.80; PeL 0.18-0.19; PeW 0.27-0.28; HFeL 0.48-0.49; HTiL 0.41 -0.43; HBaL 0.31-0.32; LS4 0.30-0.33; LT4 0.59-0.62; CI 95.4-97.0; SI 70.7-71.6; IGR 0.51-0.53.

Type Material

Holotype worker labeled: "W-Malaysia, Pahang, Cameron Hlnds., XI.1987, Wheatcroft", in The Natural History Museum.


From the Latin "terra alta", a literal translation of highlands, referred to the Cameron Highlands, the mountains of Malaysia where the species was collected.


  • Baroni Urbani, C., de Andrade, M.L. 2003. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie, 36, 1–492. (page 330, fig. 133 worker described)