De Andrade, 2003
Nothing is known about the biology of Proceratium banjaranense.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
A Proceratium species belonging to the silaceum clade and resembling Proceratium dusun, but differing from it, in the worker, by the hairs longer, by the petiolar node thicker and by the first gastral tergite strongly convex. (Baroni Urbani and de Andrade 2003)
Keys including this Species
Only known from Sabah, Malaysia.
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Very little is known about the biology of Proceratium ants. They nest in soil, rotten wood, under deep-set stones and, in a few cases, tree branches. For many species the nest consists of small rounded chambers hollowed out of soft rotten wood or in the soil. Toward the cooler limits of the range, particularly in North America, nests and foraging workers are found under deep set rocks instead of in rotten wood. The nest site is usually in forest shade, in old moist gardens, or similar habitats that are constantly moist. Some species of known to be egg predators of arthropods, especially of spiders.
Most Proceratium are relatively rare but this is not the full explanation for why they are not commonly collected. Colonies of most species are small. Based on anectdotal natural history information from a few species, it was once thought that most Proceratium would likely be found to have mature colonies that contain somewhere between 10 - 50 workers. Yet nests with more than 50, and in some cases up to 200, workers have been been reported. Besides small colonies, these ants also do not appear to forage in places where they are readily encountered.
Males and females are though to be produced in small numbers but we generally do not have enough data for colonies of any species to know what might be typical. Reproductive flights have been observered toward the end of the summer in some northern temperate areas. In these regions the nuptial flight occurs during the last half of August. Both sexes climb some distance from the nest entrance before taking flight. Workers too issue from the nest during the nuptial flight, as is often the case with otherwise cryptobiotic ants.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- banjaranense. Proceratium banjaranense De Andrade, in Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003b: 382, fig. 148 (w.) BORNEO (East Malaysia: Sabah).
- Type-material: holotype worker, 8 paratype workers.
- Type-locality: holotype Malaysia: Sabah, 16 mi from Keningau, 1380 m., 14.iii.1983 (B. Hauser); paratypes with same data.
- Type-depositories: MHNG (holotype); BMNH, MHNG (paratypes).
- Status as species: Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 57.
- Distribution: Malaysia (Sabah).
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Head slightly longer than broad and with the sides gently diverging posteriorly. Vertex in full face view gently convex. Clypeus reduced and as long as the antennal sockets. Anterior border of the clypeus truncate. Frontal carinae far from each other, slightly covering the antennal insertions. Lateral expansions of the frontal carinae broad, little raised, diverging on the two anterior fourths, converging on the third fourth, parallel and carinate only on the last fourth. Frontal area gently concave on the three anterior fourths and with a central, thick, longitudinal carina starting from the last fourth and prolonging posteriorly. Head anterolaterally with a short, longitudinal carina. Genal carinae marked, each carina corresponding to the external border of a deep sulcus. Eyes visible as a dark dot below the integument, small and on the middle of the head sides. First funicular joint about as long as broad. Funicular joints 2-10 broader than long. Last funicular joint as long as the sum of joints 6-10. Scapes short of the vertexal margin and gently broadened apically. Masticatory margin of the mandibles with 7- 10 denticles before the pointed apical tooth. Palp formula 2,2.
Mesosoma in side view gently convex and about as long as the maximum head length (mandibles included). Pronotal and propodeal sutures absent. Basal face of the propodeurn declivous posteriorly. Declivous face of the propodeum gently sloping posteriorly. Sides between basal and declivous faces of propodeum weakly angulate. Sides of the declivous face superficially carinate. Propodeal spiracle round and above mid height in lateral view.
Petiole subrectangular and thick. Anterior border of the petiole straight and weakly carinate anterolaterally. Ventral process of the petiole large, stout and triangular. Postpetiole in dorsal view with the sides diverging on the anterior half and gently convex on the posterior half. Postpetiolar sternite anteromedially with a marked subtriangular projection, gently convex posteriorly in side view. Constriction between postpetiole and gaster impressed. Gastral tergite I about 1/3 longer than the postpetiole and strongly convex on the curvature. Remaining gastral tergites and sternites curved ventrally.
Legs moderately short. All tibiae with a pectinate spur. Spurs of fore legs without basal spine. Fore basitarsi longer than the mid ones. Hind basitarsi about 1/3 shorter than hind tibiae. Second tarsomere of hind legs shorter than pretarsus. Pretarsal claws simple. Arolia absent.
Sculpture. Head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole punctate and sparsely granulate, the granulation higher on the head and on the mesosoma. Head dorsum with additional short, irregular rugosities, longer and denser on the sides. Gaster entirely smooth and with very sparse puncture on the sides. Legs punctate.
Body covered by hairs of three types: (1) short, dense, suberect or subdecumbent on the whole body, sparse on the funicular joints; (2) longer than type (1), erect or suberect on the whole body, slightly shorter on the scapes, absent on the funiculi; (3) shorter than hair type (1), dense and decumbent on the funicular joints only. In addition the funicular joints bear whitish, thick, appressed, sparse hairs.
Colour. Dark ferrugineous with lighter antennae and legs.
Measurements in mm and Indices: TL 3.00-3.38; HL 0.69-0.74; HW 0.65-0.70; EL 0.03-0.04; SL 0.45-0.49; WL 0.86-0.96; PeL 0.23-0.27; PeW 0.34-0.38; HFeL 0.51-0.54; HTiL 0.42-0.47; I-IBaL 0.29-0.32; LS4 0.28-0.33; LT4 0.63-0.74; CI 94.2-94.6; SI 65.2-66.2; IGR 0.44.
Holotype worker from Malaysia labelled: "Sabah, 16 mi from Keningau, 1380 m, 14.III.1983, B. Hauser", in Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève, 8 paratype workers same data as the holotype, in The Natural History Museum and MHNG.
Banjaranense is a barbarism created to recall the Banjaran Crocker area where the species was collected.
- Baroni Urbani, C., de Andrade, M.L. 2003. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie, 36, 1–492. (page 382, fig. 148 worker described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Baroni Urbani C., and M.L de Andrade. 2003. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Monografie 36: 1-480.
- Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58