Prenolepis fustinoda

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Prenolepis fustinoda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Lasiini
Genus: Prenolepis
Species: P. fustinoda
Binomial name
Prenolepis fustinoda
Williams & LaPolla, 2016

Prenolepis fustinoda 69.jpg

Prenolepis fustinoda 71.jpg


The type worker was captured in a malaise trap. Heterick & Kitching (2022) collected this species in the canopy of a lowland dipterocarp forest in Brunei.


Williams and LaPolla (2016) - Three small ocelli present; head subtriangular in shape; light brown head and mesosoma with a dark brown to black gaster; erect setae on scapes; petiole low in profile and very narrow and elongate (PetWI < 55) with a rounded dorsal apex of the scale; overall shape of petiole club-like.

This species is similar to Prenolepis darlena and Prenolepis fisheri but can be identified by its distinct coloration, finely rugoreticulate cuticle of the head and unique club-shaped petiole. While P. fisheri is dark brown and uniform in color, P. fustinoda has a light brown head and mesosoma that contrasts with its dark brown to black gaster, similar to the color pattern seen in Prenolepis melanogaster.

Keys including this Species


Prenolepis fustinoda was misattributed to Nepal (Williams & LaPolla 2018) due to similarity with P. darlena (Williams, 2022).

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Indo-Australian Region: Brunei Darussalam.
Oriental Region: Nepal, Thailand (type locality).
Palaearctic Region: China (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.



  • Liu, C. et al. 2020. Ants of the Hengduan Mountains, Figure 51, Prenolepis fustinoda.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • fustinoda. Prenolepis fustinoda Williams & LaPolla, 2016: 222, figs 69-71 (w.) THAILAND.
    • Senior synonym of angulinoda: Williams & LaPolla, 2018: 174.
  • angulinoda. Prenolepis angulinoda Chen & Zhou, 2018: 60, figs. 4-6 (w.) CHINA.
    • Junior synonym of fustinoda: Williams & LaPolla, 2018: 174.

Taxonomic Notes

The recently described Prenolepis angulinoda bears remarkable resemblance to Prenolepis fustinoda from Nepal. The holotypes for both have the same characteristic shape of the petiole and mesosoma in profile and an identical overall color pattern with a light brown head and mesosoma, and a dark brown to black gaster. The tarsi, trochanters, and intersegmental leg joints in both are also pale yellow and much lighter than the femora and tibiae, which are medium to dark brown in color. Furthermore, the measurements of P. angulinoda provided by Chen & Zhou (2018) fall within range of those recorded for P. fustinoda (Williams & LaPolla 2016). This synonymy expands the native range of P. fustinoda to also include the Guizhou province of China (Williams & LaPolla, 2018).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



(n=4): CMC: 30–34; EL: 0.24–0.27; EW: 0.19–0.22; HL: 0.72–0.88; HLA: 0.39–0.48; HLP: 0.12–0.24; HW: 0.72–0.86; IOD: 0.47–0.53; LF1: 0.17–0.19; LF2: 0.07–0.09; LHT: 0.78– 1.05; MMC: 2–5; MTW: 0.40–0.46; MW: 0.28–0.34; PDH: 0.32–0.38; PMC: 6–9; PrCL: 0.41–0.50; PrCW: 0.26– 0.32; PrFL: 0.66–0.85; PrFW: 0.21–0.24; PTH: 0.21–0.25; PTL: 0.34–0.45; PTW: 0.18–0.22; PW: 0.48–0.57; SL: 0.78–1.01; TL: 2.65–3.25; WF1: 0.06–0.07; WF2: 0.05–0.07; WL: 0.89–1.27; BLI: 124–153; CI: 98–100; EPI: 202–233; FLI: 200–232; HTI: 109–122; PetHI: 67–68; PetWI: 46–53; PrCI: 62–63; PrFI: 28–32; REL: 30–36; REL2: 30–36; REL3: 49–55; SI: 109–122.

Light brown head and mesosoma with a dark brown to black gaster; cuticle of head finely rugoreticulate; cuticle of pronotum smooth and shiny; cuticle of gaster reticulate; abundant long, erect setae on scapes, head, mesosoma, gaster, and legs; head as broad as long and subtriangular in shape with indistinct posterolateral corners; three small ocelli present; compound eyes moderately large and convex, but do not surpass the lateral margins of the head in full-face view; torulae do not touch the posterior border of the clypeus; clypeus without prominent anterolateral lobes; mandibles with 5 teeth on the masticatory margin; ectal surface of mandibles smooth and shiny; in profile view, propodeum is domed with a rounded dorsal face; petiole low in profile and very narrow and elongate (PetWI < 55) with a rounded dorsal apex of the scale; overall shape of petiole club-like.

Type Material

Holotype worker. Thailand: Chang Mai, Doi Inthanon N.P., 1200m, 18°32.657’N 98°31.482’E, 06–13.ix.2006, malaise trap (Y. Areeluck) (National Museum of Natural History: CASENT0129291).


The specific epithet is Latin for “club knot”, which describes the shape of the petiole.