Carebara panamensis

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Carebara panamensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. panamensis
Binomial name
Carebara panamensis
(Wheeler, W.M., 1925)


Fernández (2004) - A member of the Carebara lignata species complex. C. panamensis is only known from a very small soldier/ergatoid (1.3 mm) and a tiny worker (0.90 mm) from Panamá (Wheeler 1925). The soldier exhibits characteristics that are apparently between those of female and soldier, with a single central ocellus. In the described soldier, the right eye is bigger than the left.

The worker corresponds to those typical of Carebara and neither the drawing nor the description is sufficient to separate it other American Carebara except for Carebara anophthalma, Carebara reticulata and Carebara elongata.


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Ecuador, Panama (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • panamensis. Oligomyrmex panamensis Wheeler, W.M. 1925d: 175, fig. 7 (s.w.) PANAMA.
    • Combination in Erebomyrma: Wilson, 1986b: 61;
    • combination in Oligomyrmex: Bolton, 1995b: 300;
    • combination in Carebara: Fernández, 2004a: 223.
    • Status as species: Ettershank, 1966: 124; Kempf, 1972a: 173; Brandão, 1991: 343; Bolton, 1995b: 300; Fernández, 2004a: 223 (redescription).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Fernández (2004) - (provisionally asigned): HW 0.43; HL 0.55; SL 0.26; EL 0.08; PW 0.31; WL 0.78; GL 1.13; TL 2.98; CI 78; SI 60.

Head longer than wide, posterior border of head slightly concave. Sides of head slightly narrowed toward basal border. Mandible with 5 stout tooth. Three ocellae present, each in a concavity. Mesosoma in side view very similar to soldier/ergatoid of C. panamensis, although modified as myrmicine queens. Propodeum unarmed, narrowly rounded. Propodeal spiracle small, low, close to metapleural gland bullae. Subpetiolar process small. U-shaped trench in the basalmost portion of the first tergum. Body smooth and shining, head subopaque densely and longitudinally rugulose. Pronotum and most of mesonotum finely longitudinally striated. Short curved hairs densely over body, except propodeum, petiole and postpetiole. Hairs longer on clypeus, with a few on head, promesonotum, petiole, postpetiole and gaster. Color yellowish.

The described female is tentatively assigned to C. panamensis on the basis of size, geographical proximity, general configuration of the mesosoma, and head/ mesosomal sculpturing. Positive association of females with soldiers will be necessary to confirm whether they are actually conspecific.


  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 300, Combination in Oligomyrmex)
  • Fernández, F. 2004a. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymentoptera: Formicidae). Caldasia. 26(1):191-238. (page 223, figs. 7E, 13 queen described; Combination in Carebara)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1925e. A new guest-ant and other new Formicidae from Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 49: 150-181 (page 175, fig. 7 soldier, worker described)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1986b. Caste and division of labor in Erebomyrma, a genus of dimorphic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Insectes Soc. 33: 59-69 (page 61, Combination in Erebomyrma)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Donoso D. A. 2014. Assembly mechanisms shaping tropical litter ant communities. Ecography 37 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00253.x
  • Fernández F. 2004. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Caldasia 26: 191-238.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Levings S. C. 1983. Seasonal, annual, and among-site variation in the ground ant community of a deciduous tropical forest: some causes of patchy species distributions. Ecological Monographs 53(4): 435-455.
  • Medeiros Macedo L. P., E. B. Filho, amd J. H. C. Delabie. 2011. Epigean ant communities in Atlantic Forest remnants of São Paulo: a comparative study using the guild concept. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 55(1): 75–78.
  • Resende J. J., G. M. de M. Santos, I. C. do Nascimento, J. H. C. Delabie, and E. M. da Silva. 2011. Communities of ants (Hymenoptera – Formicidae) in different Atlantic rain forest phytophysionomies. Sociobiology 58(3): 779-799.
  • Siqueira de Castro F., A. B. Gontijo, P. de Tarso Amorim Castro, and S. Pontes Ribeiro. 2012. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests. Psyche doi:10.1155/2012/959715
  • Wheeler W. M. 1925. A new guest-ant and other new Formicidae from Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 49: 150-181.