Brachymyrmex australis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Brachymyrmex australis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Myrmelachistini
Genus: Brachymyrmex
Species: B. australis
Binomial name
Brachymyrmex australis
Forel, 1901

Brachymyrmex australis casent0911596 p 1 high.jpg

Brachymyrmex australis casent0911596 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

Synonyms

Some specimens have been found under stones and among leaf litter. The type material of the synonomized Brachymyrmex longicornis was collected from orchids.

Identification

Ortiz-Sepulveda et al. (2019) - Brachymyrmex australis is very similar in morphology to Brachymyrmex aphidicola, Brachymyrmex minutus, and Brachymyrmex termitophilus, because all these species have a mesonotum that does not bulge dorsally above the pronotum in lateral view, their bodies are smooth, shiny and yellowish, and their eyes are positioned on the cephalic midline. However, Brachymyrmex australis differs from B. aphidicola by somewhat shorter scapes, although they still reach to the posterior margin of the head or surpass it by a length equal to or smaller than the maximal diameter of the eye; it differs from B. minutus by having a well-marked mesometanotal suture and two erect hairs on the pronotum and two on the mesonotum; finally, it has scattered pubescence on the gaster whereas that of B. termitophilus is dense.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 20.55° to -34.604°.

   
North
Temperate
North
Subtropical
Tropical South
Subtropical
South
Temperate

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Malagasy Region: Mauritius.
Neotropical Region: Argentina (type locality), Bahamas, Brazil (type locality), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay.

Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Worker

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • australis. Brachymyrmex minutus r. australis Forel, 1901d: 302 (w.) BRAZIL (Rio Grande do Sul).
    • Status as species: Santschi, 1922d: 260; Santschi, 1923b: 662; Emery, 1925b: 41; Borgmeier, 1927c: 140; Kempf, 1972a: 38; Bolton, 1995b: 81; Fernández & Ortiz-Sepúlveda, 2019: 728; Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 468 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of curta: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 468.
    • Senior synonym of longicornis: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 468.
  • curta. Brachymyrmex australis var. curta Santschi, 1922d: 260 (q.m.) ARGENTINA (Córdoba), URUGUAY.
    • [Also described as new by Santschi, 1923b: 663 (w.).]
    • Subspecies of australis: Emery, 1925b: 41; Santschi, 1931e: 281; Kempf, 1972a: 38; Zolessi, et al. 1988: 6; Bolton, 1995b: 82.
    • Junior synonym of australis: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 468.
  • longicornis. Brachymyrmex longicornis Forel, 1907e: 9 (w.) BRAZIL (Rio Grande do Sul).
    • Forel, 1912i: 62 (q.).
    • Status as species: Forel, 1908b: 64; Forel, 1912i: 62; Forel, 1913l: 245; Forel, 1914d: 288; Bruch, 1914: 227; Forel, 1915c: 361; Bruch, 1916: 348; Santschi, 1923b: 667; Emery, 1925b: 42; Borgmeier, 1927c: 142; Kusnezov, 1953b: 339; Kempf, 1972a: 40; Bolton, 1995b: 82.
    • Junior synonym of australis: Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 468.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

Ortiz-Sepulveda et al. (2019) - Lectotype worker HL1 0.37; HL2 0.27; HL3 0.10; HW 0.29; SL 0.29; EL 0.10; WL 0.35; PnL n.a.; PnW 0.23; ML 0.08; MW 0.17; Indices CI 78.95; SI1 100.00; SI2 107.14; OI1 33.33; OI2 26.31. Additional material (n = 13). HL1 0.32–0.54; HL2 0.21–0.38; HL3 0.08–0.15; HW 0.29–0.53; SL 0.26–0.48; EL 0.08–0.14; WL 0.29–0.55; PnL 0.08–0.20; PnW 0.21–0.32; ML 0.06–0.11; MW 0.14– 0.20; Indices CI 82.61–97.09; SI1 89.09–104.54; SI2 114.29– 135.29; OI1 15.38–30.91; OI2 19.35–28.33.

Head. Slightly longer than wide in full face view; posterior cephalic margin slightly concave. Dorsum of the head with scattered appressed hairs. Clypeus with a rounded anterior margin and five long, erect hairs of which a single, usually conspicuous hair is near the anterior margin, two hairs are in mediolateral position, and two more near the toruli; other hairs on the clypeus are markedly shorter and appressed or decumbent. Toruli surpassing the posterior clypeal margin in oblique anterodorsal view. The scapes extend beyond the posterior margin of the head by a length equal to or smaller than the maximal diameter of the eye; they typically have appressed, sometimes decumbent, but never erect hairs. Three inconspicuous ocelli. Eyes on the cephalic midline, with 7–14 ommatidia along their maximal diameter.

Mesosoma. Typically with two erect hairs on the pronotum and two on the mesonotum. The mesonotum is not inflated and it does not bulge dorsally above the pronotum in lateral view. Metanotal groove absent or shallow and narrower than the diameter of the metathoracic spiracles. Metathoracic spiracles in dorsolateral position, not protruding, and usually touching both the mesometanotal and propodeal sutures. Dorsum of the propodeum flat or weakly convex and ~ 1/3th of the length of the propodeal slope. Propodeal spiracles circular, positioned ventrally of the posterior propodeal margin slightly posterior of the middle of the propodeal slope. Legs with appressed and scattered hairs. Petiole short and inclined forward.

Gaster. With scattered pubescence and scattered long suberect hairs.

Color and sculpture. Body smooth and shiny, uniform yellowish in color

Type Material

Ortiz-Sepulveda et al. (2019) - Lectotype worker (Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève: USNMENT00757156) and paralectotype worker (MHNG: USNMENT00758102; here designated): two workers [examined]. BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Pelotas.

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Achury R., and A.V. Suarez. 2017. Richness and composition of ground-dwelling ants in tropical rainforest and surrounding landscapes in the Colombian Inter-Andean valley. Neotropical Entomology https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-017-0565-4
  • Adams B. J., S. A. Schnitzer, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2019. Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach. Ecology 100(6): e02673.
  • Bruch C. 1914. Catálogo sistemático de los formícidos argentinos. Revista del Museo de La Plata 19: 211-234.
  • Bruch C. 1916. Contribución al estudio de las hormigas de la provincia de San Luis. Revista del Museo de La Plata 23: 291-357.
  • Cuezzo, F. 1998. Formicidae. Chapter 42 in Morrone J.J., and S. Coscaron (dirs) Biodiversidad de artropodos argentinos: una perspectiva biotaxonomica Ediciones Sur, La Plata. Pages 452-462.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forel A. 1908. Fourmis de Costa-Rica récoltées par M. Paul Biolley. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44: 35-72.
  • Forel A. 1909. Ameisen aus Guatemala usw., Paraguay und Argentinien (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1909: 239-269.
  • Forel A. 1913. Fourmis d'Argentine, du Brésil, du Guatémala & de Cuba reçues de M. M. Bruch, Prof. v. Ihering, Mlle Baez, M. Peper et M. Rovereto. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 49: 203-250.
  • Forel A. 1914. Formicides d'Afrique et d'Amérique nouveaux ou peu connus. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 50: 211-288.
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Kusnezov N. 1978. Hormigas argentinas: clave para su identificación. Miscelánea. Instituto Miguel Lillo 61:1-147 + 28 pl.
  • Kusnezov, N. "Lista de las hormigas de Tucumán con descripción de dos nuevos géneros (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Acta Zoologica Lilloana 13 (1953): 327-339.
  • Longino J. T., J. Coddington, and R. K. Colwell. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology 83: 689-702.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at https://sites.google.com/site/admacsite/
  • Medel R. G., and R. A. Vasquez. 1994. Comparative analysis of harvester ant assemblages of Argentinian and Chilean arid zones. Journal of Arid Anvironments 26: 363-371
  • Ortiz-Sepuvelda C. M., B. Van Bocxlaer, A. D. Meneses, and F. Fernandez. 2019. Molecular and morphological recognition of species boundaries in the neglected ant genus Brachymyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): toward a taxonomic revision. Organisms Diversity & Evolution https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-019-00406-2
  • Pereira Souza J. L., F. Beggiato Baccaro, V. Lemes Landeiro, E. Franklin, W. E. Magnusson, P. Aurelio, C. Lima Pequeno, and I. Oliveira Fernandes. 2015. Taxonomic sufficiency and indicator taxa reduce sampling costs and increase monitoring effectiveness for ants. Diversity and Distributions 1-12. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12371
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Quiran, E.M. 2007. El Género Neotropical Brachymyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en la Argentina. III: Redescripción de las Especies: B. aphidicola Forel, de B. australis Forel y B. constrictus Santschi. Neotropical Entomology 36(5):699-706
  • Santschi F. 1923. Revue des fourmis du genre Brachymyrmex Mayr. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 31: 650-678.
  • Santschi F. 1931. Contribution à l'étude des fourmis de l'Argentine. Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. 112: 273-282.
  • Saporito, R.A., H. M. Garraffo, M.A. Donnelly, A.L. Edwards, J.T. Longion and J.W. Daly. 2004. Formicine Ants: An Arthropod Source for the Pumiliotoxin Alkaloids of Dendrobatid Poison Frogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(21):8045-8050
  • Siqueira de Castro F., A. B. Gontijo, P. de Tarso Amorim Castro, and S. Pontes Ribeiro. 2012. Annual and Seasonal Changes in the Structure of Litter-Dwelling Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Atlantic Semideciduous Forests. Psyche doi:10.1155/2012/959715
  • Siqueira de Castro F., A. B. Gontijo, W. Duarte da Rocha, and S. Pontes Ribeiro. 2011. As comunidades de formigas de serapilheira nas florestas semidecíduas do Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. MG.BIOTA, Belo Horizonte 3(5): 5-24.
  • Solomon, S.E. and A.S. Mikheyev. 2005. The ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist 88(4):415-423
  • Vittar, F. 2008. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de la Mesopotamia Argentina. INSUGEO Miscelania 17(2):447-466
  • Zolessi L. C. de; Y. P. de Abenante, and M. E. Philippi. 1989. Catálogo sistemático de las especies de Formícidos del Uruguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Montevideo: ORCYT Unesco, 40 + ix pp.
  • de Zolessi, L.C., Y.P. de Abenante and M.E. Philippi. 1987. Lista sistemática de las especies de formícidos del Uruguay. Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo 11(165):1-9