Alfaria simulans

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Alfaria simulans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Ectatomminae
Tribe: Ectatommini
Genus: Alfaria
Species: A. simulans
Binomial name
Alfaria simulans
Emery, 1896

Gnamptogenys simulans casent0603729 profile 1.jpg

Gnamptogenys simulans casent0603729 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen labels



Brandao and Lattke (1990) - The body surfaces of Alfaria simulans, Alfaria falcifera and Alfaria vriesi share a characteristic sculpturing; except for the legs, mandibles, anterolateral portions of frontal lobes and anterior portion of clypeus; very finely striolate and mostly covered by piligerous foveolae. In A. vriesi the fovolae are nearly contiguous and the stiolation can be seen only at high magnifications at the confluence of the depressions. From each foveola departs an eccentric hair, which is turned in different directions, depending on the area of the body. A. simulans and A. facifera may have extensive areas smooth and shining, but it A. vriesi the foveolae cover all body surfaces, except the cited ones. The holotype worker of the latter had these foveolae filled with earth, in a manner similar to that found by Holldobler and Wilson (1986) in Basiceros and Stegomyrmex (Myrmicinae).

The propodeal declivity in the three species bears a crested depression, completely sculptured with radiate punctations, clearly centered at the foramen in the new Ecuadorean species, but faintly visible in the previously described ones. These combined features distinguish these species from other taxa described as Alfaria and Gnamptogenys. They may be considered thus as forming a distinct subgroup of Alfaria.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 18.5333° to -0.6364°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Costa Rica (type locality), Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (type locality), Panama.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.



Images from AntWeb

Gnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 d 2 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 19 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 19 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 3 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 d 3 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 d 4 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 4 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 4 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 d 5 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 5 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 5 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 6 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 d 6 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 6 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 7 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 7 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 8 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 8 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 h 9 high.jpgGnamptogenys bufonis antweb1008529 p 9 high.jpg
Specimen code antweb1008529. .


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • simulans. Alfaria simulans Emery, 1896e: 177 (footnote) (w.) COSTA RICA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Costa Rica: Suerre, nr Jiménez, vi.1895 (A. Alfaro).
    • [Note: locality data from Emery, 1896g: 42.]
    • Type-depository: MSNG.
    • [Also described as new by Emery, 1896g: 42, fig. 5 (w.q.m.).]
    • Combination in Gnamptogenys: Brown, 1958g: 229;
    • combination in Alfaria: Camacho, Franco, Branstetter, et al. 2022: 10.
    • Status as species: Forel, 1899c: 3; Emery, 1911d: 46; Borgmeier, 1949: 205 (in key); Brown, 1958g: 229, 316; Kempf, 1972a: 114; Lattke, 1992a: 128; Bolton, 1995b: 210; Lattke, et al. 2007: 260 (in key); Branstetter & Sáenz, 2012: 255; Lattke & Delsinne, 2016: 142; Camacho, et al. 2020: 462 (in key); Camacho, Franco, Branstetter, et al. 2022: 10.
    • Senior synonym of bufonis: Lattke & Delsinne, 2016: 142; Camacho, Franco, Branstetter, et al. 2022: 10.
    • Distribution: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.
  • bufonis. Alfaria bufonis Mann, 1926: 101 (w.) MEXICO (Oaxaca).
    • Type-material: holotype worker.
    • Type-locality: Mexico: Oaxaca, Choapam, 28.vii.1894, in stomach of toad Bufo valliceps (Nelson & Goldman).
    • Type-depository: USNM.
    • Combination in Gnamptogenys: Brown, 1958g: 227;
    • combination in Alfaria: Camacho, Franco, Branstetter, et al. 2022: 10.
    • Status as species: Borgmeier, 1949: 205 (in key); Brown, 1958g: 227, 317; Kempf, 1972a: 112; Bolton, 1995b: 208; Lattke, 1992a: 126; Lattke, et al. 2007: 264 (in key).
    • Junior synonym of simulans: Lattke & Delsinne, 2016: 142; Camacho, Franco, Branstetter, et al. 2022: 10.

Type Material

Alfaria bufonis: Choapam, Oaxaca, Mexico. Cat. No. 29047 U. S. N. M. Described from a single worker taken from the stomach of a toad (Bufo valliceps Weig., U. S. N. M. 46967) collected by Nelson and Goldman, July 28, 1894. The type lacks the antennal funiculi and portions of the legs, but is otherwise in good condition, with the pilosity well preserved.



References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Borgmeier T. 1949. Formigas novas ou pouco conhecidas de Costa Rica e da Argentina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 9: 201-210.
  • Borgmeier T. 1957. Myrmecologische Studien, I. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 29: 103-128.
  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • Emery C. 1896. Studi sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. XVII-XXV. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 28: 33-107.
  • Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • INBio Collection (via Gbif)
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Lattke J. E., and T. Delsinne. 2016. Revisionary and natural history notes on some species of the genus Gnamptogenys Roger, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 22: 141-147.
  • Lattke, J.E. 1992. Revision of the minuta-group of the genys Gnamptogenys. Dtsch. ent. Z., N.F. 39:123-129
  • Longino J. T. 2013. Ants of Nicargua. Consulted on 18 Jan 2013.
  • Longino J. T. L., and M. G. Branstetter. 2018. The truncated bell: an enigmatic but pervasive elevational diversity pattern in Middle American ants. Ecography 41: 1-12.
  • Longino J. T., J. Coddington, and R. K. Colwell. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology 83: 689-702.
  • Longino J. T., and R. K. Colwell. 2011. Density compensation, species composition, and richness of ants on a neotropical elevational gradient. Ecosphere 2(3): 16pp.
  • Longino J. et al. ADMAC project. Accessed on March 24th 2017 at
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Philpott, S.M., P. Bichier, R. Rice, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Field testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs. Conservation Biology 21: 975-985.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133