Tetramorium ferox

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Tetramorium ferox
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Tetramorium
Species: T. ferox
Binomial name
Tetramorium ferox
Ruzsky, 1903

Tetramorium ferox casent0280930 p 1 high.jpg

Tetramorium ferox casent0280930 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


Nothing is known about the biology of Tetramorium ferox.


Csösz and Schulz (2010) - A member of the Tetramorium ferox species complex in the Tetramorium caespitum species group. The feebly rugulose general sculpture, the microreticulate ground surface, and the relatively sparse pubescence on the first gastral tergite make the T. ferox gynes unique within this group.

Tetramorium ferox workers cannot be confused with those of Tetramorium diomedeum or Tetramorium aegeum. The general appearance of the head and mesosoma of T. ferox workers is always rugulose, microreticulate and dull, but head and mesosoma of the latter two species are always shiny and usually at least partly smooth.

Tetramorium feroxoides workers usually bear much feebler (and often parallel) rugulae on head and mesosoma than T. ferox workers, but in a few cases T. feroxoides workers can be confused with the smallest T. ferox workers.

A discriminant function using various morphological measurements has also been defined and can be used to make determinations in this species group.

Keys including this Species


Widely distributed over the western Palaearctic, from Central Europe to the Caucasus and Turkey. (Csösz and Schulz 2010)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Armenia, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russian Federation (type locality), Turkmenistan.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb




Csosz & Schulz 2010. Gyne and worker.



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • ferox. Tetramorium caespitum var. ferox Ruzsky, 1903b: 309 (w.q.m.) RUSSIA. Subspecies of caespitum: Emery, 1909d: 703; Emery, 1916b: 194. Raised to species: Cori & Finzi, 1931: 239; Soudek, 1931: 10; Menozzi, 1933b: 75 (in key); Kratochvíl, 1944: 72; Tarbinsky, 1976: 112; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 155. Senior synonym of silhavyi: Bernard, 1967: 235; Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990: 201; Radchenko, 1992b: 55; of confinis, perspicax: Csösz & Schulz, 2010: 20; material of the unavailable name striaticeps referred here by Radchenko, 1992b: 55.
  • silhavyi. Tetramorium (Lobomyrmex) ferox subsp. silhavyi Kratochvíl, in Novak & Sadil, 1941: 84, fig. 1 (w.q.) CZECHOSLOVAKIA. [Also described as new by Kratochvíl, in Kratochvíl, Novak & Snoflak, 1944: 72.] Junior synonym of ferox: Bernard, 1967: 235; Radchenko, 1992b: 55.
  • confinis. Tetramorium confinis Radchenko & Arakelian, 1990: 374, fig. 2 (w.q.m.) ARMENIA. Junior synonym of ferox: Csösz & Schulz, 2010: 20.
  • perspicax. Tetramorium perspicax Radchenko, 1992b: 56 (w.q.) TURKEY. [First available use of Tetramorium caespitum st. ferox var. perspicax Santschi, 1921a: 111; unavailable name.] Synonym of feroxoides: Radchenko, 1992b: 56. [Radchenko gives perspicax as senior name, but feroxoides has priority: Bolton, 1995b: 412.] Junior synonym of ferox: Csösz & Schulz, 2010: 21.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Csösz and Schulz (2010) - Medium to large size, CS 825 [693, 918]. Whole body and appendages greyish brown to dark brown. Head slightly longer than broad, CL/CW 1.03 [0.99, 1.09], with feebly convex sides, straight posterior margin with widely rounded corners. Eyes small, EYE 0.16 [0.15, 0.18]. Frons moderately wide, FR/CS 0.39 [0.36, 0.41], frontal lobes usually as wide as the frons, rarely slightly broader, FL/FR 1.01 [1.00, 1.03]. Scape long, SL/CS 0.79 [0.74, 0.83], with a feeble dorsal carina basally, its surface very finely microreticulate. Promesonotal dorsum slightly convex, metanotal groove shallow. Propodeal denticles moderately long. Petiolar node moderately high, NOH/NOL 1.05 [0.88, 1.29] trapezoid to cubic seen in profile.

Head longitudinally rugulose and microreticulate, posterior surface ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate, appears dull. Mesosoma dorsum and mesopleura ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface coarsely microreticulate. Dorsum of petiolar node ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate, median part smooth. Dorsum of postpetiole rugulose and microreticulate. First gastral tergite smooth, appears shiny. Ventral surface of head with a row of short setae only (without long C-shape hairs).


Csösz and Schulz (2010) - Medium to large size, CS 999 [955, 1095]. Whole body and appendages black. Head broader than long, CL/CW 0.92 [0.90, 0.94] with sides and posterior margin straight, with widely rounded corners. Head trapezoid in full face view, narrower at genae. Frons moderately wide, FR/CS 0.40 [0.39, 0.42]. Scape long, SL/CS 0.75 [0.70, 0.81], with a feeble dorsal carina basally, its surface smooth and shiny. Head slightly narrower than scutum, MW/CS 1.03 [0.99, 1.08]. Propodeal teeth long. Petiole and postpetiole wide, CS/PEW 1.65 [1.56, 1.78], CS/PPW 1.29 [1.11, 1.43].

Head dorsum, posterior surface and sides ruguloso-reticulate, ground surface microreticulate. Frons longitudinally rugulose and microreticulate. Scutum and scutellum longitudinally rugulose. Sides of mesosoma, rugoso-reticulate and microreticulate, ventral part of katepisternum always rugulose, or microreticulate. Dorsum of petiolar node and postpetiole coarsely reticulate and microreticulate. First gastral tergite smooth, appears shiny. Ventral surface of head with a row of short setae only (without long C-shape hairs).


Csösz and Schulz (2010) - Head sides feebly convex, posterior margin widely rounded. Scutum much broader than head. Propodeal denticles reduced, propodeum nearly rounded in profile. Dorsum of petiolar node blunt, dorsolaterally sharp and angulate. Whole body and appendages black. Head, scutum, scutellum, anepi- and katepisternum as well as petiole and postpetiole finely rugulo-reticulate, between main sculpturation microreticulate. First gastral tergite smooth, appears shiny.

Type Material

Csösz and Schulz (2010) - Syntype workers, gynes, male (2w, 2q, 1m): Russia, Saratov (Ruzsky) [labels: Tetr. caespitum L., v. ferox Rusz, Ssaratov M.R.] (examined) Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève.


  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 155, Raised to species)
  • Bernard, F. 1967a [1968]. Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. (page 235, Senior synonym of silhavyi)
  • Cori, K.; Finzi, B. 1931. Aufzählung der von Karl Cori 1914 auf süddalmatinischen Inseln gesammelten Ameisen. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 68: 237-240 (page 239, Raised to species)
  • Csosz, S. ; Marko, B. 2004. Redescription of Tetramorium hungaricum Roeszler, 1935, a related species of T. caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 6: 49-59 (page 55, diagnostic characters)
  • Csösz, S. & Schulz, A. 2010. A taxonomic review of the Palaearctic Tetramorium ferox species-complex. Zootaxa. 2401:1-29. PDF
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990 [1989]. Ants of Turkmenistan. Ashkhabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. (page 201, Senior synonym of silhavyi)
  • Emery, C. 1909f. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil IX. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 1909: 695-712 (page 703, Subspecies of caespitum)
  • Emery, C. 1916a [1915]. Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 47: 79-275 (page 194, Subspecies of caespitum)
  • Kratochvíl, J. 1944. Mravenci mohelnské reservace. Rozbor taxonomicky, faunisticko-oekologicky, sociologicky a zoogeograficky. Pp. 9-102 in: Kratochvíl, J., Novák, V., Snoflák, J. Mohelno. Soubor práci venoványch studiu vyznamne památky prírodní. 5. Hym (page 72, Raised to species)
  • Menozzi, C. 1933b. Le formiche della Palestina. Mem. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 12: 49-113 (page 75, (in key) Raised to species)
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1992b. Ants of the genus Tetramorium (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR fauna. Report 2. Zool. Zh. 71(8 8: 50-58 (page 55, Senior synonym of silhavyi, Material of the unavailable name striaticeps referred here)
  • Radchenko, A. G.; Arakelian, G. R. 1990. Ants of the group Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Crimea and the Caucasus. Biol. Zh. Arm. 43: 371-378 PDF
  • Ruzsky, M. 1903b. Essay on the myrmecofauna of the Kirghiz steppe. Tr. Rus. Entomol. Obshch. 36: 294-316 (page 309, worker, queen, male described)
  • Soudek, S. 1931. Mravenci "Hádu", jizního vybezku Moravského Krasu. (Faunisticky rozbor). Zpr. Kom. Prírodoved. Vyzk. Moravy Slez. Odd. Zool. 19: 1-30 (page 10, Raised to species)
  • Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. (page 112, Raised to species)