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Temporal range: Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous Burmese amber, Kachin Province, Myanmar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Uncertain
Genus: Petropone
Dlussky, 1975
Type species
Petropone petiolata
Species List

The taxonomomic placement of this genus is uncertain and it is currently considered incertae sedis in Aculeata.


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • PETROPONE [incertae sedis in Aculeata]
    • Petropone Dlussky, 1975: 119. Type-species: †Petropone petiolata Dlussky, 1975: 119, by original designation.

Taxonomic history

  • Petropone in Ponerinae: Dlussky, 1975: 119.
  • Petropone incertae sedis in †Sphecomyrminae: Wilson, 1987: 49.
  • Petropone incertae sedis in in †Armaniidae: Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77; Bolton, 1994: 187.
  • Petropone incertae sedis in Formicidae (poneromorph subfamilies): Bolton, 2003: 49, 181.
  • Petropone as junior synonym of †Sphecomyrma?: Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9.
  • Petropone as genus: Carpenter, 1992: 493; Bolton, 1994: 187; Bolton, 1995b: 316 (catalogue); Grimaldi, et al. 1997: 7; Bolton, 2003: 181; Borysenko, 2017: 20.
  • Petropone excluded from Formicidae, incertae sedis in Hymenoptera, Aculeata: Grimaldi, et al. 1997: 7; Borysenko, 2017: 20.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. (page 187, Petropone in Armaniinae; Petropone as genus)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 316, Petropone as genus (catalogue))
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 181, Petropone incertae sedis in Poneromorph subfamilies)
  • Borysenko, L.H. 2017. Description of a new genus of primitive ants from Canadian amber, with the study of relationships between stem- and crown-group ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Insecta Mundi 570: 1–57.
  • Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4. Volume 4. Superclass Hexapoda. Boulder: Geological Society of America, pp. i-ii, 279-655. (page 493, Petropone as genus)
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1975a. Superfamily Formicoidea Latreille, 1802. Family Formicidae Latreille, 1802. Pp. 114-122 in: Rasnitsyn, A. P. (ed.) Hymenoptera Apocrita of Mesozoic. Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk USSR 147:1-134. (page 119, Petropone in Ponerinae)
  • Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. (page 77, Petropone in Armaniidae)
  • Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208: 1-43 (page 7, Petropone as genus; Petropone incertae sedis in Aculeata)
  • Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. (page 9, Petropone as junior synonym of Sphecomyrma?)
  • Wilson, E. O. 1987b. The earliest known ants: an analysis of the Cretaceous species and an inference concerning their social organization. Paleobiol. 13: 44-53 (page 49, Petropone incertae sedis in Sphecomyrminae)