Key to Ectatomminae Genera

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This key to the genera of the subfamily Ectatomminae is based on Camacho et al. (2022).

1

  • Cephalic median longitudinal carina present, extending from the anterior clypeal margin to the vertex (Fig. 4A). Metapleural gland orifice simple, directed posteriorly or laterally (tribe Heteroponerini) => 2
  • Cephalic median longitudinal carina absent or not extending from the anterior clypeal margin to the vertex (Fig. 4B, C). Metapleural gland orifice forming an oblique curved slit bounded below by a convex rim of cuticule that directs the orifice dorsally to posterodorsally (tribe Ectatommini) => 5
Fig. 4. Dorsal view of head, showing: A) Cephalic median longitudinal carina present, extending from the anterior clypeal margin to the vertex (Acanthoponera minor—CASENT0178699); B) Cephalic median longitudinal carina not extending from the anterior clypeal margin to the vertex (Ectatomma tuberculatum—CASENT0173380); C) Cephalic median longitudinal carina absent (Holcoponera striatula—CASENT0173386). Photos by April Nobile; available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

2

return to couplet #1

  • Median portion of clypeus modified, raised as a short, blunt triangular point projecting from the antennal insertions to the mandible. Antennal scrobe wide and very deep (exclusively Paleartic) (known only by queens) => Aulacopone
  • Median portion of clypeus not raised, not or only to a small extent covering the mandible. Antennal scrobe deep to absent => 3

3

return to couplet #2

  • Tarsal claws with a prominent basal lobe and a long preapical tooth. Propodeum armed with prominent spines (exclusively Neotropical) => Acanthoponera
  • Tarsal claws simple, without a prominent basal lobe or preapical tooth. Propodeum generally angled or with small rhomboidal teeth at most => 4

4

return to couplet #3

  • In frontal view, mandible subfalcate, with around four teeth on the masticatory margin. Antennal scrobe absent. Eye drastically reduced, without conspicuous limits between ommatidia (exclusively Neotropical) => Bazboltonia
  • In frontal view, mandible subtriangular, with six to eight teeth on the masticatory margin. Antennal scrobe shallowly to deeply impressed. Eye well-developed, with clear limits between ommatidia (Neotropical and Australian) => Heteroponera

5

return to couplet #1

  • Pronotum usually with 2 or 3 tubercles. Mesonotum prominent and clearly differentiated from propodeum, separated by a deep transverse suture (Fig. 5A). Apex of anterior tibia in outer lateral view with a seta close to the spur base (exclusively Neotropical) => Ectatomma
  • Pronotum unarmed and without tubercles. Mesonotum not prominent, forming a continuous profile with the propodeum (Fig. 5B). Apex of anterior tibia in outer lateral view without a seta close to the spur base; if seta present, then species distribution is exclusively Australasian => 6
Fig. 5. Lateral view of pronotum, showing: A) Pronotal tubercles present; mesonotum prominent, separated from propodeum by a deep transversal suture (Ectatomma tuberculatum—CASENT0173380); B) Pronotal tubercles or projections absent; mesonotum not prominent, forming a continuous profile with propodeum (Holcoponera striatula—CASENT0173386). Photos by April Nobile; available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

6

return to couplet #5

  • In dorsal view, pronotum and mesonotum always separated by a distinct suture, so that each tergite forms a separate plate (Fig. 6A). Dorsum of posterior coxa never with a lobe or spine. Petiolar sternite tightly attached but never fused to the tergite (exclusively Australasian) => Rhytidoponera
  • In dorsal view, pronotum and mesonotum usually continuous or separated by a discrete groove (Fig. 6B); if a well-impressed promesonotal suture is present (as in Holcoponera and Typhlomyrmex), then the dorsum of posterior coxa frequently with a lobe or spine. Petiolar sternite fused with tergite over its entire length => 7
Fig. 6. Dorsal view of pronotum, showing: A) Pronotum and mesonotum separated by a distinct suture (Rhytidoponera abdominalis—CASENT0281333); B) Pronotum and mesonotum continuous with a discrete groove (Gnamptogenys stellae—CASENT0281227). Photos by Cerise Chen (A) and Estella Ortega (B) available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

7

return to couplet #6

  • Frontal lobes strongly expanded, entirely covering the antennal insertions (Fig. 7A). Second gastral (IV abdominal) sternite strongly reduced in relation to the tergite; dorsal profile of gaster extremely convex, so that the gaster is usually strongly directed ventrally and anterad (Fig. 8A). Exclusively Neotropical. => Alfaria
  • Frontal lobes less developed, only partially covering the antennal insertions (Fig. 7B). Second gastral (IV abdominal) sternite not strongly reduced in relation to the tergite; dorsal profile of gaster gently convex, so that the apex of gaster is directed ventrally or posteriorly (Fig. 8B). => 8
Fig. 7. Frontal view of head, showing: A) Expanded frontal lobes (Alfaria falcifera—CASENT0179971); B) Occipital lobes absent (Gnamptogenys continua—CASENT0173383). Photos by Erin Prado (A) and April Nobile (B); available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).
Fig. 8. Lateral view of gaster, showing: A) Second gastral (IV abdominal) sternite not strongly reduced in relation to the tergite; dorsal profile of gaster gently convex, so that the apex of gaster is only discretely directed ventrally (Gnamptogenys acuminata—USNMENT00441095); B) Second gastral (IV abdominal) sternite strongly reduced in relation to the tergite; dorsal profile of gaster extremely convex, so that the gaster is strongly directed ventrally and anterad (Alfaria minuta—CASENT0281213). Photos by Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo (A) and Estella Ortega (B); available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

8

return to couplet #7

  • Promesonotal suture feebly impressed to absent, never interrupting dorsal mesosomal sculpture (Fig. 9A, B) => 9
  • Promesonotal suture well marked, totally interrupting dorsal mesosomal sculpture (Fig. 9C) => 11
Fig. 9. Dorsal view of mesosoma, showing: A) Promesonotal suture absent (Gnamptogenys acuminata—USNMENT00441095); B) Promesonotal suture feeble, never interrupting dorsal mesosomal sculpture (Poneracantha banksi—INBIOCRI001281007); C) Promesonotal suture well marked, totally interrupting dorsal mesosomal sculpture (Holcoponera moelleri—CASENT0173384). Photos by Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo (A), Estella Ortega (B), and April Nobile (C); available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

9

return to couplet #8

  • Strictly Indomalayan species => Stictoponera
  • Strictly Neotropical species => 10

10

return to couplet #9

  • Propodeum rarely armed with denticles or spines. Metacoxal teeth present or absent. Second gastric segment (IV abdominal) relatively less curved (Fig. 10A) => Gnamptogenys
  • Propodeum usually armed with denticles or spines. Metacoxal teeth generally present. Second gastric segment (IV abdominal) relatively more curved (Fig. 10B) => Poneracantha
Fig. 10. Lateral view of gaster, showing: A) Second gastric segment (IV abdominal) relatively straight (Gnamptogenys acuminata—USNMENT00441095); B) Second gastric segment (IV abdominal) slightly arched ventrally (Poneracantha mecotyle—CASENT0281530). Photos by Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo (A) and Zach Lieberman (B); available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

11

return to couplet #8

  • Eye absent or reduced. Propodeal spiracle separated from posterior face of propodeum by a distance longer than its diameter (Fig. 11A). Metacoxal dorsum unarmed or at most with a small lobe or denticle => Typhlomyrmex
  • Eye well developed to reduced. Propodeal spiracle close to posterior face of propodeum (Fig. 11B). Metacoxal dorsum always with a denticle or lobe => Holcoponera
Fig. 11. Lateral view of propodeum, showing: A) Propodeal spiracle separated from declivity margin by a distance longer than its diameter (Typhlomyrmex lavra); B) Propodeal spiracle close to the declivous face of propodeum (Holcoponera relicta—USNMENT00412058). Photos by Gabriela Camacho (A) and Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo; available from www.antweb.org (Antweb 2021).

References