Cephalotes insularis

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Revision as of 13:21, 10 September 2013 by Lubertazzi (talk | contribs) (Identification)
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Cephalotes insularis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Cephalotini
Genus: Cephalotes
Species: C. insularis
Binomial name
Cephalotes insularis
(Wheeler, W.M., 1934)

Identification

A member of the wheeleri clade differing from its sister species, Cephalotes hirsutus, by the shorter and sparser appressed hairs of the worker. Both share the postpetiolar spines almost as long as the postpetiole and the border of the first gastral tergite yellowish and transparent. Some of the workers intercepted in Nogales present a pair of distinct brownish spots on the anterior face of the gaster; other specimens from the same series don't. (de Andrade and Baroni Urbani 1999)

Distribution

This taxon was described from Mexico.

Check distribution from AntMaps.

{{#display_map: |width=600 |height=500 |centre=0,0 |gkml=http://www.antweb.org/googleEarth.do?google=genus=Cephalotes---species=insularis |kmlrezoom=yes |zoom=1 |resizable=yes |controls=pan, zoom, type, scale |markercluster=yes }}

Check specimen data from AntWeb

Biology

Castes

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • insularis. Cryptocerus pilosus subsp. insularis Wheeler, W.M. 1934f: 140 (w.) MEXICO. Combination in Paracryptocerus (Harnedia): Kempf, 1958a: 128; in Zacryptocerus: Brandão, 1991: 386; in Cephalotes: De Andrade & Baroni Urbani, 1999: 583. Raised to species: Kempf, 1958a: 128.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.

Description

Worker

de Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) - Vertexal angles round, with superficially crenulate border. Vertexal border straight and variably marginate medially. Hypostoma not connected by a bridge. Cheeks superficially marginate dorsally. Frontal carinae with a superficial notch over the eyes. Antennal scrobes reaching the antero-ventral border of the eyes. Clypeal border concave. Mandibles with faint lateral carinae.

Mesosoma convex in side view. Pronotum in dorsal view with the anterior border not marginate and convex. Scapular angles absent or not visible in dorsal view. Pronotum with a narrow lamellae bearing three pairs of lateral teeth, the first, humeral, short and pointed, followed by another subequal in length or smaller, variably pointed and by a third broad, obtuse or slightly pointed pair close to the mesonotum. Sides of the mesonotum converging posteriorly and unarmed. Promesonotal and propodeal sutures in dorsal view superficially marked in some specimens only, more impressed on the sides. Propodeum declivous, without distinctly differentiated basal and declivous faces, with a pointed, thin spine directed laterally and slightly upwards at midlength.

Petiole anteriorly truncate; its anterior border marked by a transversal carina variably marked. Petiolar spines ca. half so long as the length of the petiole, thin, pointed backwards and on the middle of the petiolar sides. Postpetiole broader than petiole, with thin, pointed spines slightly shorter than the postpetiolar length, arising anterolaterally and curved backwards at the base.

Gaster oval, without crest, lobe or lateral margin.

Hind and mid femora without angle or denticles; mid and hind basitarsi long and without flat and broad base.

Sculpture. Head dorsum reticulate, with irregular, superficial foveae separated by broad reticulation. Frontal carinae superficially reticulate. Ventral face of the head irregularly striata-rugose and reticulate, the reticulation more impressed in larger specimens. Mesosoma minutely reticulate, irregularly foveolate, the foveae separated by broad reticulation forming longitudinal rugae on the posterior half of the pronotum and on the propodeum; in small specimens the foveae less evident. Same sculpture but more superficial on the pedicel. Sides of the mesosoma with the same sculpture as on the dorsum, but with few or without striae on the upper meso- and metapleurae. First gastral tergite and sides of the first gastral sternite with longitudinal, thin rugosities, irregular and less impressed on the middle of the posterior half of the first gastral tergite in some specimens. Anterolateral borders of the first gastral tergite and central part of the first sternite superficially reticulate and shining. Legs reticulate, with slightly shining femora. Distal part of the outer face of the femora and outer face of the tibiae with oval and superficial foveae.

Pilosity. Body with four types of hairs: (1) sparse, long, erect and truncate on the head, on the mesosoma, on the pedicel, on the gastral tergites and on the legs; (2) similar to the type (1) but thinner and shorter on the sternites; (3) canaliculate, appressed, thick, denser on the vertexal border, on the mesosoma and on the pedicel; (4) similar hairs to the type (3) but shorter and thinner on the frons, on the gaster and on the legs.

Colour. Dark brown to black. Frontal carinae yellowish to light ferruginous and semitransparent. Legs orange or ferruginous or light brown with darker basitarsi. Border of the first gastral tergite yellowish and transparent. Some specimens with the anterolateral border of the first gastral tergite with a pair of oval, orange-reddish spots. Vertexal angles, propodeum and pedicel with weak golden reflexes.

Measurements (in mm) and indices: TL 4.08-4.94; HL 1.00-1.20; HW 1.04-1.32; EL 0.28-0.33; PW 0.88-1.18; PeW 0.56-0.62; PpW 0.68-0.74; HBaL 0.44-0.48; HBaW 0.09-0.10; CI 104.0-111.1; PI 111.8-118.2; PPeI 157.1-190.3; PPpI 129.4-159.4; HBaI 20.4-20.8.

Soldier

de Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) - Head disc present. Head dorsum concave, the concavity increasing anteriorly. Middle of the head dorsum with a broad tumulus. Frontal carinae broadly expanded anteriorly, not covering the eyes, strongly converging posteriorly and connected by a sharp, straight ridge on the vertex. Vertexal angles round and marginate. Eyes moderately convex. Clypeal border deeply concave anteriorly. Mandibles laterally carinate and largely hidden by the frontal carinae.

Mesosoma. Humeral angles with a broad, angulate tooth anteriorly, their sides converging posteriorly. Pronotal carina marked and interrupted in the middle. Promesonotal suture impressed. Mesonotal sides with a broad tooth with round or pointed tip. Lower mesopleurae without denticles. Propodeum differentiated in basal and declivous faces; basal face in dorsal view poorly convex, with a broad, pointed tooth in the middle of each side and narrowing towards the declivous face; declivous face longitudinally concave.

Petiole with distinctly differentiated anterior and posterior faces; anterior face truncate, posterior face slightly convex and bearing, on its sides, a pointed spine directed backwards. Postpetiole broadly convex; postpetiolar spines broad, pointed, arising from the anterior border of the postpetiole and slightly curved backwards.

Gaster with a barely protruding anterior border and laterally not marginate.

Legs. Fore coxae with a tumulus anteriorly. Mid and hind femora without angle or denticles. Mid and hind basitarsi without broad base and not compressed laterally.

Sculpture. Head and mesosoma reticulate-punctate, with superimposed foveae broader than their interspaces, diminishing in size on the anterior part of the head and more superficial on the frontal carinae. Pedicel reticulate and with dense foveae, in some specimens this sculpture extends to the sides of the mesosoma. Pleurae reticulate, superficially foveolate and with few rugosities, the foveae rare on the metapleurae. Two posterior thirds of the declivous face of the propodeum, gaster and legs reticulate, the reticulation fainter on the femora and on the posterior half of the first gastral sternite. Anterior third of the first gastral tergite with longitudinal rugosities; most specimens bear similar rugosities but more superficial on the sides or on the anterior third of the first gastral sternite. Outer face of the tibiae with oval and superficial foveae.

Pilosity. Body with four types of hairs: (1) decumbent to appressed arising from each fovea, longer and thicker on the propodeum, on the pedicel and on the lower part of the meso- and metapleurae, slightly shorter and thinner on the extensor face of the legs; (2) long, erect, truncate, rare on the pedicel, sparse on the first gastral tergite and on the legs, dense on the posterior border of the gaster; (3) similar to type (2) but shorter and thinner on the first gastral sternite; (4) minute, appressed and thin on the gaster and on the anterior and posterior faces of the legs.

Colour. Black. Frontal carinae dark red. Some specimens with the dorsal side of the head dark red. Legs ferruginous with brown tarsi. Some specimens with the antero-lateral border of the first gastral tergite with a pair of oval, reddish spots or with the border of the first gastral tergite yellowish and transparent.

Measurements (in mm) and indices: TL 6.60-6.84; HL 1.64-1.68; HW 1.76-1.84; EL 0.36-0.37; PW 1.80; PeW 0.71-0.74; PpW 0.80-0.88; HBaL 0.46-0.48; HBaW 0.13; CI 107.3-109.5; PI 97.7-102.2; PPeI 243.2-253.5; PPpI 204.5-225.0; HBaI 27.1-28.3.

Queen

de Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) - Head disc present. Posterior two thirds of the head dorsum gently convex. Anterior third of the head concave. Frontal carinae anteriorly broadly expanded and with raised border, converging posteriorly and connected by a convex carina on the vertex. Vertexal angles round and marginate. Eyes convex and not hidden by the disc in dorsal view. Anterior clypeal border concave. Mandibles with a lateral carina and partially hidden by the frontal carinae.

Mesosoma flat in side view. Humeral angles with an obtuse tooth anteriorly, straight posteriorly. Pronotal carina marked and superficially interrupted in the middle. Promesonotal suture impressed. Propodeum differentiated in basal and declivous face; basal face weakly convex dorsally, with the sides bearing a small denticle medially; sides of the declivous face converging posteriorly.

Petiole distinctly differentiated in anterior and posterior faces; anterior face truncate, posterior face slightly convex and with the sides bearing a minute denticle medially. Postpetiole broadly convex; postpetiolar spines broad, obtuse and arising from the anterior border of the postpetiole

Legs and gaster. As in the soldier.

Sculpture. Head, pronotum, mesonotum and scutellum reticulate-punctate and with foveae broader than their interspaces, slightly sparse on the middle of the mesopleurae and on the anterior half of the ventral part of the head Propodeum, upper mesopleurae and pedicel reticulate and with dense foveae. Propleurae and metapleurae reticulate and with sparse foveae on the propleurae and rare on the metapleurae. Two posterior thirds of the declivous face of the propodeum, gaster and legs reticulate, the reticulation fainter on the femora and on the posterior half of the first gastral sternite. Anterior third of the first gastral tergite with longitudinal rugosities; similar rugosities but more superficial on the sides of the anterior third of the first gastral sternite. Outer face of the tibiae with oval and superficial foveae.

Pilosity. As in the soldier except for the presence hair type (2) on the border of the frontal carinae and of the vertexal angles and on the mesosoma.

Colour. Head reddish, gaster darker. Mesosoma and pedicel dark brown. Legs ferruginous with brown tarsi.

Measurements (in mm) and indices: TL 8.24; HL 1.68; HW 1.76; EL 0.39; PW 1.70; PeW 0.58; PpW 0.67; HBaL 0.53; HBaW 0.15; CI 104.8; PI 103.5; PPeI 293.1; PPpI 253.7; HBaI 25.9.

References

The following references are based on the 2007 CD version of the New General Catalogue.

  • Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 35: 319-412 (page 386, Combination in Zacryptocerus)
  • De Andrade, M. L.; Baroni Urbani, C. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. Ser. B (Geol. Paläontol.) 271: 1-889 (page 583, Combination in Cephalotes)
  • Kempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 1: 1-168 (page 128, Combination in Paracryptocerus (Harnedia))
  • Kempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Stud. Entomol. (n.s.) 1: 1-168 (page 128, Raised to species)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1934f. Ants from the islands off the west coast of Lower California and Mexico. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 10: 132-144 (page 140, worker described)

Additional References

Daceton armigerum.jpg This is a stub page which contains only a minimal amount of information. Please contribute to AntWiki by adding details based on these short introductions.

When and How should this STUB be removed? See Remove Stub.