Carebara nicotianae

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Carebara nicotianae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Carebara
Species: C. nicotianae
Binomial name
Carebara nicotianae
(Arnold, 1948)

Fischer-et-al-2014-Carebara-29Carebara-nicotianae hal.jpg

Fischer-et-al-2014-Carebara-29Carebara-nicotianae had.jpg

Carebara nicotianae has been collected in miombo woodland (Zambia) and at elevations ranging from 1300 to 1650 m.


Fischer et al. (2014) - Antennae with 11 segments. Major worker: Head in full-face view wider than long, wider posteriorly than anteriorly, posterior margin of head widely and shallowly concave to V-shaped medially, face with coarse, irregular, longitudinal rugose-reticulate sculpture and weakly punctate interspaces, dorsum of scutum in profile strongly convex, propodeal spines acute, triangular and directed upward, petiole with short, anteriorly directed tooth anteroventrally, gaster with abundant, short, appressed pilosity plus longer suberect standing hairs. Minor worker: Head in full-face view oval with strongly convex sides, face smooth and shiny with frontal carinae ending at about cephalic midlength, posterior margin of head deeply concave, in profile propodeal dorsum straight, mesonotum and propodeum with areolate sculpture and spines well developed, moderately long and triangular. Gaster with several relatively long suberect hairs.

C. nicotianae may be confused with Carebara polita but major workers of C. nicotianae are without horns at posterolateral lobes while those of C. polita have small protuberances or horns, and mesonotum and propodeum of C. nicotianae minor workers are areolate while those of C. polita are smooth and shiny.

Keys including this Species


Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Afrotropical Region: Zambia, Zimbabwe (type locality).

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb



Minor Worker


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • nicotianae. Sporocleptes nicotianae Arnold, 1948: 220, figs. 8, 8a (w.) ZIMBABWE.
    • Combination in Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 124;
    • combination in Carebara: Fischer, et al. 2014: 82.
    • Subspecies of politus: Arnold, 1952a: 460 (in text); Bolton, 1995b: 299.
    • Status as species: Ettershank, 1966: 124; Fischer, et al. 2014: 82 (redescription).

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Fischer et al. (2014) - Major (n=1): HW 2.09, HL 1.78, SL 0.82, MDL 0.94, EL 0.15, WL 2.27, PNH 1.48, PNW 1.71, MNH 2.27, PDH 0.94, PTL 0.91, PPL 0.59, PTH 0.73, PPH 0.70, PTW 0.70, PPW 1.01, PSL 0.45, MFL 1.45, MTL 1.22, CI 117, SI 39, MDI 45, EI 7, FI 70, PSLI 21, LPpI 83, DPpI 172, PpWI 143, PpLI 64, PpHI 97.

Head distinctly wider than long (CI 117), in full-face view massive and weakly heart shaped, posteriorly wider than anteriorly. Posterior margin of head widely and shallowly emarginate, sides convex. Mandibles triangular and masticatory margin with six teeth including the basal tooth. Anterior margin of clypeus medially straight, laterally concave. Antennae eleven-segmented, scapes reaching slightly beyond midlength of head (SI 39). Eyes relatively small, multi-faceted (EI 7).

In profile, mesosoma queenlike and large, pronotum high, with large and convex scutum, scutellum inconspicuous, most likely fused with scutum. Promesonotal suture present, metanotal sclerite strongly reduced, present as narrow band below overhanging scutum-scutellum. Anepisternum and katepisternum large and well-separated from each other and segmental plates surrounded by relatively wide grooves with several short, parallel, coarse and transverse carinae. Dorsal face of propodeum nearly straight, propodeal spines relatively long, acute and with blunt tips, posterior declivity of propodeum slightly concave with a shallow lamella starting from below the base of the spines towards propodeal lobes. Propodeal spiracle situated nearly in the center of lateropropodeum.

Petiole with short peduncle, in profile ventrally straight, with rounded posteroventral corner, subpetiolar process short and digitiform, pointing anteroventrally, anterodorsal face slightly concave, posterodorsal face vertical and concave, petiole node massive and tapering apically, widely transverse on dorsal edge and posteriorly marginate. Postpetiole roundly convex in profile, about as high as petiole (PpHI 97) and distinctly higher than long (PpLI 64), convex anterodorsally, the posterior margin towards gaster oblique and linear, and with a very short ventral face. In dorsal view, petiole node anteriorly and posteriorly compressed, wider than long, anterior and posterior faces nearly straight, postpetiole about 1.4 times wider than petiole (PpWI 143), anterior and posterior faces convex.

Mandibles smooth and shiny, with weak rugulae laterally near the bases. Clypeus smooth and shiny medially, with lateral carinae. Frons and remainder of face with coarse, irregular, longitudinal rugose-reticulate sculpture, the interspaces superficially reticulate-punctate. Frontal carinae absent or inconspicuous. Dorsal pronotum anteriorly rugose-reticulate, grading to posteriorly weakly punctate, scutum grading from medially superficially punctate to laterally irregularly and posteriorly coarsely rugose-reticulate. Lateral pronotum, anepisternum and katepisternum mostly smooth and shiny, the latter weakly rugulose at margins. In profile propodeum longitudinally rugulose near the lateral base, dorsolaterally with coarse rugae and punctures in between. Posterior propodeal declivity weakly punctate. Petiole node punctate and with strong vertical rugae near the posterodorsal base. Postpetiole dorsum with irregular, longitudinal rugoreticulate sculpture. Gaster, near articulation to postpetiole, with many short, but strongly developed, longitudinal carinae, covered with a dense coat of short pubescence, and anterior quarter of first gastral tergite with faint longitudinal rugulae present.

Head and body with abundant long, erect to subdecumbent hairs, and with short, appressed to decumbent, very fine pilosity, the latter very abundant on postpetiole and gaster. Scapes and tibiae with short, very fine, and decumbent pilosity. Color reddish brown, antennae, legs and gaster yellowish light brown.

Minor (n=5): HW 0.46–0.47 (0.46), HL 0.52–0.54 (0.53), SL 0.35–0.37 (0.36), MDL 0.27–0.29 (0.28), EL 0.02–0.03 (0.02), WL 0.52–0.65 (0.56), PNH 0.23–0.24 (0.23), PNW 0.26–0.28 (0.27), MNH 0.31–0.33 (0.32), PDH 0.23, PTL 0.23–0.26 (0.24), PPL 0.14–0.15 (0.15), PTH 0.14–0.15 (0.15), PPH 0.09–0.10 (0.10), PTW 0.07–0.09 (0.08), PPW 0.11–0.12 (0.11), PSL 0.09–0.10 (0.09), MFL 0.38–0.43 (0.41), MTL 0.30–0.34 (0.31), CI 86–89 (88), SI 76–80 (77), MDI 58–61 (60), EI 5–6 (5), FI 84–90 (88), PSLI 19–21 (20), LPpI 141–167 (153), DPpI 70–81 (76), PpWI 127–161 (140), PpLI 56–67 (62), PpHI 63–68 (65).

Head longer than wide (CI 86–89), narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly, posterior margin of head sharply concave, occipital corners convex, sides strongly convex. Mandibles with five well-defined teeth. Anteromedian margin of clypeus concave, with triangular denticle laterally. Antennae with eleven segments, scapes reaching about 6/7 towards posterior margin of head (SI 76–80). Eyes consisting of one ommatidium (EI 5–6).

In profile, promesonotum weakly convex to almost straight, roundly convex at posterodorsal corner, metanotal groove weakly impressed to inconspicuous. Pronotum in profile about as high as propodeum. Dorsum of propodeum slightly convex and much shorter than posterior declivity, propodeal spines long, very acute and lamellate, lamella reaching from spines down toward propodeal lobes. Propodeal spiracle in profile close to posterior border of propodeum, somewhat below base of spine.

In profile, petiole with relatively long peduncle, ventrally weakly concave near the anterior corner and convex near the posterior corner, with a very short and angular tooth anteriorly, anterodorsally deeply concave at center, peduncle about as long as petiole node, dorsal face of node subangulate, anterodorsally rounded. Postpetiole in profile on average about 1.5 times longer than high (LpPI 141–167) and lower than petiole (PpHI 63–68), dorsally convex, bluntly angulate anteriorly and slightly rounded posteriorly, with a small, convex ventral process anteriorly. In dorsal view, petiole node about 1.5 times longer than wide, postpetiole on average 1.4 times wider than petiole (PpWI 127–161), with anteriorly converging sides. Gaster very slender in dorsal view, with acute anterior corners lateral of postpetiole attachment.

Mandibles, clypeus and face smooth and shiny, malar area up to eye level weakly longitudinally striate, with one or a few faint striae reaching posteriorly towards posterolateral lobes. Frontal carinae moderately long, continuing behind eye level to about midlength of head. Promesonotum and posterior declivity of propodeum mostly smooth and shiny, but mesopleuron and lateral and dorsal propodeum entirely areolate. Petiole areolate. Postpetiole mostly smooth and shiny and covered with weak punctures. Gaster smooth and shiny.

Head and body with several, relativel uniformly spaced, moderately long suberect to subdecumbent hairs, short decumbent pilosity very scattered and almost entirely absent from head and body surface. Posterolateral head corners with two to three short stiff hairs. Scapes and tibiae with short, decumbent pilosity. Color dark orange with slightly lighter legs and gaster.

Type Material

Fischer et al. (2014) - Three syntype(?) minor workers: ZIMBABWE: Macheke, 3.x.1948? [not examined].


  • Arnold, G. 1948. New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 8. Occas. Pap. Natl. Mus. South. Rhod. 2: 213-250 (page 220, fig. 8 worker described)
  • Arnold, G. 1952a. New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 10. Occas. Pap. Natl. Mus. South. Rhod. 2: 460-493 (page 460, Subspecies of politus)
  • Ettershank, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenopsis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Aust. J. Zool. 14: 73-171 (page 124, Combination in Oligomyrmex)
  • Fernández, F. 2004a. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymentoptera: Formicidae). Caldasia 26(1): 191-238 (page 235, Combination in Carebara)
  • Fischer, G., Azorsa, F. & Fisher, B.L. 2014. The ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): synonymisation of Pheidologeton Mayr under Carebara, establishment and revision of the C. polita species group. ZooKeys 438:57–112. doi:10.3897/zookeys.438.7922