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Anoplolepis gracilipes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Plagiolepidini
Genus: Anoplolepis
Santschi, 1914
Type species
Formica longipes
14 species
(Species Checklist, Species by Country)

Anoplolepis gracilipes casent0064816 profile 1.jpg

Anoplolepis gracilipes

Anoplolepis gracilipes casent0064816 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Evolutionary Relationships

  (2 genera)

  (10 genera)

  (9 genera)

  (8 genera)

Gesomyrmex, Oecophylla


  (14 species)

  (18 species)

  (1 species)

  (1 species)

  (136 species)

  (41 species)

  (2 species)

Gigantiops, Myrmoteras, Santschiella

  (8 genera)

Based on Ward et al. 2016.

Hita Garcia, Wiesel and Fischer (2013) - Anoplolepis is a relatively small genus with only nine valid species (Bolton, 2012). Predominantly Afrotropical, with fewer species in the Malagasy and Oriental regions and some introduced in other regions. There is no modern revision available for this genus on an Afrotropical basis, although Prins (1982) presented a taxonomic treatment for the South African species. Unfortunately, he only provided a key to the queen and male castes. These formicines are epigaeic and active ants that forage on the ground or the vegetation. Their diet is comparatively variable since they feed on a variety of small arthropods but also on honeydew produced by aphids or coccids (Prins, 1982).


AntWeb icon 02.png See images of species within this genus

Keys including this Genus


Afrotropical species

A list of all the Afrotropical species with images Afrotropical species with images is available


Distribution and Richness based on AntMaps


Association with Other Organisms

Species Uncertain

An unspecified species within this genus is a host for the eucharitid wasp Athairocharis vannoorti (a parasite) (Universal Chalcidoidea Database) (primary host).

All Associate Records for Genus

Explore Associate Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Relationship Associate Type Associate Taxon Associate Relationship Locality Source Notes
Anoplolepis host eucharitid wasp Athairocharis vannoorti parasite Universal Chalcidoidea Database primary host
Anoplolepis gracilipes mutualist butterfly Lampides boeticus Obregon et al. 2015



Worker Morphology

 • Antennal segment count 11 • Antennal club gradual • Total dental count 6-9(0-2) • Spur formula 1 simple, 1 simple • Eyes present • Scrobes absent • Caste most monomorphic, several species polymorphic • Sting absent


All Karyotype Records for Genus

Explore Karyotype Data: All, Drilldown
Taxon Haploid Diploid Karyotype Locality Source Notes
Anoplolepis gracilipes 17 34 India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Sarawak Goni et al., 1982; Tjan et al., 1986; Imai et al., 1983; Imai et al., 1984; Imai et al., 1985 as ''Anoplolepis longipes''


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's New General Catalogue, a catalogue of the world's ants.

  • ANOPLOLEPIS [Formicinae: Lasiini]
    • Anoplolepis Santschi, 1914b: 123 [as subgenus of Plagiolepis]. Type-species: Formica longipes (junior primary homonym in Formica, Formica gracilipes first available replacement name), by monotypy: Bolton, 1995b: 20.
    • Anoplolepis raised to genus: Emery, 1925b: 16.
    • Anoplolepis senior synonym of Zealleyella: Bolton, 2003: 96, 267.
  • ZEALLEYELLA [junior synonym of Anoplolepis]
    • Zealleyella Arnold, 1922: 579 (diagnosis in key) [as subgenus of Plagiolepis]. Type-species: Formica custodiens, by subsequent designation of Santschi, 1926a: 14.
    • Zealleyella subgenus of Anoplolepis: Santschi, 1926a: 14.
    • Zealleyella junior synonym of Anoplolepis: Bolton, 2003: 96, 267.


  • Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Syst. Entomol. 16: 293-310 PDF (page 295, 296, Anoplolepis in Formicinae [part in Oecophylla genus group, part in Pseudolasius genus group])
  • Arnold, G. 1922. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part V. Myrmicinae. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 14: 579-674 (page 593, Anoplolepis in Camponotinae, Plagiolepidini; Anoplolepis as subgenus of Plagiolepis)
  • Bolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. (page 20, Formica gracilipes first available replacement name), by monotypy)
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 71: 370pp (page 96, 267, Anoplolepis as Lasiini; Anoplolepis senior synonym of Zealleyella)
  • Emery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183: 1-302 (page 16, Anoplolepis in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini; Anoplolepis as genus)
  • Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 51: 229-253 (page 249, Anoplolepis in Camponotinae, Plagiolepidini; Anoplolepis as subgenus of Plagiolepis)
  • Prins, A. J. 1982. Review of Anoplolepis with reference to male genitalia, and notes on Acropyga (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 89: 215-247 (page 215, Partial revision of genus)
  • Santschi, F. 1914b. Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale, 1911-1912. Résultats scientifiques. Insectes Hyménoptères. II. Formicidae. Paris: Libr. A. Schulz, pp. 41-148. (page 123, Anoplolepis as subgenus of Plagiolepis)
  • Santschi, F. 1926a. Trois notes myrmécologiques. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 95: 13-28 (page 13, Anoplolepis in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini; Anoplolepis as genus)
  • Wheeler, W. M. 1922i. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. VII. Keys to the genera and subgenera of ants. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45: 631-710 (page 696, Anoplolepis in Formicinae, Plagiolepidini)