Known from but a few collections from the Canary Islands, it is not clear if this species is an island endemic or has yet to be found in continental Afrotropical areas.
- 1 Identification
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Biology
- 4 Castes
- 5 Nomenclature
- 6 References
- 7 References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
Bolton and Fisher (2011) - At first glance the holotype of nivariana appears to be a small, depigmented version of Hypoponera eduardi that has lost most of its sculpture, but whose dimensions fall within the lower end of the Hypoponera punctatissima range. It is separated from these two species as follows.
It differs from eduardi because in Hypoponera nivariana colour is dull yellow, dorsum of mesosoma is almost smooth, sculpture of mesopleuron is feeble and superficial, scape is shorter (SI 83, SL/HL 0.68) and fails to reach midpoint of posterior margin of head in full-face view (for comparison, in eduardi SI 86–93, SL/HL 0.72–0.78). Overall size of nivariana is smaller (HL 0.56, HW 0.46, SL 0.38) when compared to eduardi (HL 0.63–0.70, HW 0.54–0.59, SL 0.47–0.54).
It differs from punctatissima because in H. nivariana there is no elongate mid-dorsal cephalic impression, sculpture is present on the mesopleuron, the anterior and posterior faces of the petiole node in profile do not converge towards the apex and the subpetiolar process has an obtuse ventral angle.
A member of the punctatissima group.
Keys including this Species
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 28.550833° to 28.15°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
Hypoponera inhabit and nest in leaf litter, the surface layer of soil, downed rotten wood, and soil around plant roots. Nests are typically found by turning objects on the ground, like downed wood and rocks, or through the ripping away of bark found on rotting downed wood or at the base of dead trees. Litter samples in tropical areas, especially in moist forested sites, often contain individuals of this genus. All Hypoponera are thought to be predators of small arthropods but published details about their diet are sparse. A lack of information about other aspects of their biology is also typical for most species.
The genus is most diverse in the tropics. Species found in higher latitudes tend to be more widespread, common and abundant than their tropical and subtropical congeners.
Queens are known but undescribed. Males have not been collected.
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- nivariana. Ponera nivariana Santschi, 1908: 518 (w.) SPAIN (Canary Is). Combination in Hypoponera: Barquin Diez, 1981: 50. See also: Bolton & Fisher, 2011: 76.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Bolton and Fisher (2011) - H. nivariana is known from only five collections (Barquin Diez, 1981), all from Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The number of specimens from these five collections totals a mere 13 workers and a single queen, so nivariana cannot be considered a common or successful species. It may be a Canaries endemic, or an Afrotropical species that has not yet been discovered on the continent; or it may represent a hybrid between eduardi and punctatissima. This last is highly speculative and without proof, though the fact that it possesses a strange mix of characters found in the two other species is suggestive. Its taxonomic history is short and the name nivariana has occurred in the literature very few times following Santschi’s original description. Wheeler (1927a), Wellenius (1955) and Hohmann, et al. (1993) all merely listed the species as present and endemic in the Canaries. Barquin Diez (1981) redescribed the species, added a few more details of morphology and correctly concluded that it was “close to eduardi” but differed by its lighter colour, shorter scapes and more feeble dorsal sculpture.
Bolton and Fisher (2011) - Measurements: HL 0.56, HW 0.46, HS 0.510, SL 0.38, PrW 0.34, WL 0.66, HFL 0.37, PeNL 0.14, PeH 0.30, PeNW 0.22, PeS 0.220. Indices: CI 82, SI 83, PeNI 65, LPeI 47, DPeI 157.
Eyes small but distinct, far forward on side, composed of a low but indeterminate number of partially fused small ommatidia (left eye depigmented). Mid-dorsal longitudinal impression on head terminates immediately behind the frontal lobes and does not extend to the midlength of the vertex or beyond. Apex of scape, when laid straight back from its insertion, fails to reach the midpoint of the posterior margin in full-face view by a distance that is less than the apical scape width; SL/HL 0.68. Cephalic dorsum extremely finely and superficially punctulate. Mesonotal-mesopleural suture absent. Metanotal groove conspicuously incised across dorsum of mesosoma; mesonotum with a well-defined posterior margin. Propodeal declivity bluntly rounded into the sides, without sharp marginations or carinae. Dorsum of mesosoma almost smooth, the minute punctulae that are present are superficial and inconspicuous. Upper half of mesopleuron with very fine superficial sculpture that is weaker than sculpture on side of propodeum; lower half of mesopleuron appears smoother (not clearly visible). Petiole in profile with the anterior and posterior faces of the node almost parallel; faces converge very slightly only at the apex, where they round into the weakly convex dorsum. Subpetiolar process in profile with an obtuse ventral angle. Maximum width of first gastral tergite in dorsal view less than the width of the second tergite at its midlength. Base of cinctus of second gastral tergite smooth and shining in dorsal view, without cross-ribs. Posttergite of second gastral segment, from posterior margin of cinctus to apex, much broader than long. Disc of second gastral tergite minutely superficially punctulate. Full adult colour a uniform dull yellow.
Holotype worker, SPAIN: Canary Is, Tenerife, Bajamon, 19.ix.1898 (Cabrera & Diaz) (Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel) [examined].
- Bolton, B. & Fisher, B.L. 2011. Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi. Zootaxa 2843: 1-118. PDF
- Hohmann, H.; La Roche, F.; Ortega, G.; Barquín, J. 1993. Bienen, Wespen und Ameisen der Kanarischen Inseln. Veröff. Überseemus. Bremen Naturwiss. 12: 14-712 (page 145, Combination in Hypoponera)
- Santschi, F. 1908. Nouvelles fourmis de l'Afrique du Nord (Égypte, Canaries, Tunisie). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 77: 517-534 (page 518, worker described)
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Barquín, J.. Las hormigas de Canarias. Taxonomia, ecologia y distribucion de los Formicidae In Secretariado de publicaciones de la Universidad de La Laguna, Colección Monografías Nº 3. Tenerife: Universidad de La Laguna, 1981.
- Bolton B. and B. L. Fisher. 2011. Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2843: 1-118
- Bolton, B., and B. L. Fisher. "Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Zootaxa 2843 (2012): 1-118.
- Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
- Emery C. 1911. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118: 1-125.
- Hohmann H., F. La Roche, G. Ortega, and J. Barquín. 1993. Bienen, Wespen und Ameisen der Kanarischen Inseln. Veröff. Überseemus. Bremen Naturwiss. 12: 14.
- Santschi, F.. "Nouvelles fourmis de l'Afrique du Nord (Égypte, Canaries, Tunisie)." Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 77 (1908): 517-534.
- Wellenius, O. H.. "Entomologische Ergebnisse der finnländischen Kanaren-Expedition 1947-1951. No. 10. Formicidae Insularum Canariensium. Systematik, Ökologie und Verbreitung der Kanarischen Formiciden." Commentationes Biologicae Societas Scienitarum Fennica 15(8) (1955): 1-20.