Hylomyrma immanis

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Hylomyrma immanis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Pogonomyrmecini
Genus: Hylomyrma
Species: H. immanis
Binomial name
Hylomyrma immanis
Kempf, 1973

Hylomyrma immanis casent0280842 p 1 high.jpg

Hylomyrma immanis casent0280842 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels

This species inhabits forested areas in Atlantic and other tropical rainforests of South America. Most specimens were sampled in leaf-litter with winkler extractors, which suggests that H. immanis nests between leaves, in fallen logs, rotten wood, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers. (Ulyssea & Brandao, 2021)

At a Glance • Ergatoid queen  


Large-sized; subopaque integument; body with thin striae (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular and longitudinal striae (macrosculpture), macrosculpture absent on postpetiole and gaster, interspaces between thin striae indistinguishable; propodeal spine long; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, convex; dorsal margin of postpetiole subtriangular; subpostpetiolar process prominent, subtriangular; profemur posterior surface and protibia extensor surface striae; very long striae on tergum of first gastral segment.

Hylomyrma immanis and Hylomyrma praepotens are the largest species in the genus (TL 5.67–6.47 mm, WL 1.51–1.58 mm). Both have a long propodeal spine, and an elongated and continuous dorsal margin of the petiole, but H. immanis is easily distinguished by the subopaque integument (shiny in H. praepotens), and the body covered by thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (thick striae with interspaces distinguishable in H. praepotens). Hylomyrma immanis is more easily sampled than H. praepotens, the former has a broad distribution in the center-north of South America (Fig. 88), whereas the latter is only known from two localities in Colombia, two in Ecuador, and one in Brazil (Fig. 90). Both species co-occur in a locality 7 km NW of Letícia, Amazonas, Colombia.

Keys including this Species


Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 10.724° to -17°.

Tropical South
  • Source: Ulyssea & Brandao, 2021

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia (type locality), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.

Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.



Kempf (1973) described ergatoid queens in this species


The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • immanis. Hylomyrma immanis Kempf, 1973b: 241, fig. 2 (w.q.) COLOMBIA.
    • Type-material: holotype worker, 13 paratype workers, 1 paratype queen.
    • Type-locality: holotype Colombia: Amazonas, 7 km. NW Leticia, 20-25.ii.1972, berlesate no. 230, forest litter (S. & J. Peck); paratypes: 12 workers, 1 queen with same data, 1 worker Guyana (“British Guiana”): between Cuyuni and Mazaruni Rivers, 8.ix.1935, no. 357 (N.A. Weber).
    • Type-depositories: MCZC (holotype); MCZC, MZSP (paratypes).
    • Ulysséa & Brandão, 2021: 49 (m.).
    • Status as species: Kutter, 1977a: 86; Brandão, 1991: 346; Bolton, 1995b: 213; Bezděčková, et al. 2015: 117; Pierce, M.P., Branstetter, et al. 2017: 137; Fernández & Serna, 2019: 797; Ulysséa & Brandão, 2021: 46 (redescription).
    • Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Type Material

  • Holotype: COLOMBIA: Amaz.[Amazonas]: 7km NW Letícia, 20–25 Feb 1972, #230, forest litter, berlesate, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZ35420) [MCZC] [examined by Ulyssea & Brandao (2021)].
  • Paratypes: same data as holotype (6W 1Q) (MCZ35420) [MCZC] [examined by Ulyssea & Brandao (2021)]; (7W) (MZSP67328, MZSP67329, MZSP67330, MZSP67331, MZSP67332) [MZSP] [examined by Ulyssea & Brandao (2021)]. GUYANA: [Cuyuni-Mazaruni]: Betw R. Cuyuni & R. Mararuni, Br, 8.ix.1935, N.A. Weber col., #357 (1W) (MCZ35420) [MCZC] [examined by Ulyssea & Brandao (2021)].



References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Brandao, C.R.F. 1991. Adendos ao catalogo abreviado das formigas da regiao neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 35: 319-412.
  • Fernandes I., and J. de Souza. 2018. Dataset of long-term monitoring of ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the influence areas of a hydroelectric power plant on the Madeira River in the Amazon Basin. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e24375.
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Franco W., N. Ladino, J. H. C. Delabie, A. Dejean, J. Orivel, M. Fichaux, S. Groc, M. Leponce, and R. M. Feitosa. 2019. First checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of French Guiana. Zootaxa 4674(5): 509-543.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, F. Petitclerc, B. Corbara, M. Leponce, R. Cereghino, and A. Dejean. 2017. Litter-dwelling ants as bioindicators to gauge the sustainability of small arboreal monocultures embedded in the Amazonian rainforest. Ecological Indicators 82: 43-49.
  • Groc S., J. H. C. Delabie, F. Fernandez, M. Leponce, J. Orivel, R. Silvestre, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and A. Dejean. 2013. Leaf-litter ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a pristine Guianese rainforest: stable functional structure versus high species turnover. Myrmecological News 19: 43-51.
  • Groc S., J. Orivel, A. Dejean, J. Martin, M. Etienne, B. Corbara, and J. H. C. Delabie. 2009. Baseline study of the leaf-litter ant fauna in a French Guianese forest. Insect Conservation and Diversity 2: 183-193.
  • Kempf W. W. 1973. A revision of the Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Hylomyrma Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 16: 225-260.
  • Pierce M. P., M. G. Branstetter, and J. T. Longino. 2017 . Integrative taxonomy reveals multiple cryptic species within Central American Hylomyrma FOREL, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 25: 131-143.
  • Pires de Prado L., R. M. Feitosa, S. Pinzon Triana, J. A. Munoz Gutierrez, G. X. Rousseau, R. Alves Silva, G. M. Siqueira, C. L. Caldas dos Santos, F. Veras Silva, T. Sanches Ranzani da Silva, A. Casadei-Ferreira, R. Rosa da Silva, and J. Andrade-Silva. 2019. An overview of the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the state of Maranhao, Brazil. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 59: e20195938.
  • Resende J. J., G. M. de M. Santos, I. C. do Nascimento, J. H. C. Delabie, and E. M. da Silva. 2011. Communities of ants (Hymenoptera – Formicidae) in different Atlantic rain forest phytophysionomies. Sociobiology 58(3): 779-799.
  • Silva R.R., and C. R. F. Brandao. 2014. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient. PLoSONE 9(3): e93049. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093049