Cardiocondyla bulgarica

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Cardiocondyla bulgarica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Crematogastrini
Genus: Cardiocondyla
Species: C. bulgarica
Binomial name
Cardiocondyla bulgarica
Forel, 1892

Cardiocondyla bulgarica casent0179879 p 1 high.jpg

Cardiocondyla bulgarica casent0179879 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels


The few databased specimens show this species has been found in pine forest and in urban habitats.


Seifert (2003) - A member of the Cardiocondyla bulgarica group. C. bulgarica has a very large CL/CW (1.231 ± 0.004), PoOc/CL (0.461 ± 0.004), and PEW/PPW (0.640 ± 0.009); cephalic and mesosomal microsculpture, and a warm yellowish mesosoma contrasting with a the darker head and gaster.

C. bulgarica is close to Cardiocondyla sahlbergi from which a perfect discrimination by the set of external characters considered here was not possible. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA, however, indicates a heterospecifity of both taxa (Trindl and Heinze, pers. comm., October 2002).

Keys including this Species


Cardiocondyla bulgarica seems to have a rather limited geographic range extending from the S Balkans across Asia Minor. (Seifert 2003)

Latitudinal Distribution Pattern

Latitudinal Range: 42.596228° to 36.03333333°.

Tropical South

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Palaearctic Region: Bulgaria (type locality), Greece, Turkey.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Countries Occupied

Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.


Estimated Abundance

Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.





The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • bulgarica. Cardiocondyla elegans var. bulgarica Forel, 1892i: 312, pl. 5, fig. 4 (w.q.) BULGARIA.
    • Type-material: syntype workers, syntype queens (numbers not stated).
    • Type-localities: Bulgaria: Anchialo, and Sozopolis, 15-16.viii.1891 (A. Forel).
    • Type-depositories: MHNG, NHMB, NHMW, ZISP.
    • [Cardiocondyla elegans var. bulgarica Forel, 1892h: 461 (in text). Nomen nudum.]
    • As unavailable (infrasubspecific) name: Emery, 1909a: 22.
    • Subspecies of elegans: Dalla Torre, 1893: 70; Emery, 1922e: 125.
    • Junior synonym of elegans: Radchenko, 1995b: 449.
    • Status as species: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987a: 56; Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 276 (in key); Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 174; Bolton, 1995b: 132; Seifert, 2003a: 233 (redescription); Petrov, 2006: 99 (in key); Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 26; Legakis, 2011: 15; Borowiec, L. & Salata, 2012: 484; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 17; Borowiec, L. 2014: 46; Bračko, et al. 2014: 13; Lebas, et al. 2016: 266; Salata & Borowiec, 2018c: 44.
    • Senior synonym of eleonorae: Seifert, 2003a: 233; Legakis, 2011: 16; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 17.
    • Distribution: Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey.
  • eleonorae. Cardiocondyla elegans var. eleonorae Forel, 1911d: 337 (w.) TURKEY.
    • Type-material: syntype workers (number not stated).
    • Type-locality: Turkey: Coccarinali beach, nr Smyrna (= Izmir), iv.-v.1910 (A. Forel).
    • Type-depository: MHNG.
    • Subspecies of elegans: Emery, 1922e: 125; Santschi, 1934d: 277; Menozzi, 1936d: 283; Bolton, 1995b: 132.
    • Junior synonym of elegans: Radchenko, 1995b: 449.
    • Junior synonym of bulgarica: Seifert, 2003a: 233; Legakis, 2011: 16; Kiran & Karaman, 2012: 17.

Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.



Seifert (2003) - Head elongated, CL/CW 1.203. Postocular distance large, PoOc/CL 0.451. Eyes of medium size, EYE 0.241. Vertex with shallow but well-demarcated foveolae; interspaces about as wide as foveolae and glabrous. Frontal lobes and area posterior of frontal lobes finely longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Frontal carinae immediately posterior of the FRS level almost parallel. Clypeus rather smooth, in some specimens with weak lateral carinulae and suggestions of foveolae. Mesosoma in overall impression, more or less glabrous; promesonotum with scattered, shallow foveolae; meso- and metapleurae with suggestions of longitudinal carinulae. Petiole wide, PEW/PPW 0.619. Postpetiolar sternite with weak anteromedian bulge. Head usually medium brown with warm yellowish tinge, sometimes dark brown. Mesosoma and petiole varying between yellow and medium brown, but warm yellowish tinge even in darkest specimens always visible. Postpetiole yellowish brown to dark brown. Gaster dark brown. Pigmentation contrast between dorsal head and mesosoma always expressed PigCap/PigMes 1.492 ± 0.250 [1.14, 2.00].


Seifert (2003) - Head elongated, CL/CW 1.185. Postocular index large, PoOC/CL 0.444. Vertex with shallow but well-demarcated foveolae of 17 - 19 mm diameter, interspaces frequently smaller than foveolar diameter and shining, almost without microstructures. Frontal carinae immediately posterior of FRS level parallel or slightly diverging. Frontal lobes and vertex posterior of frontal lobes shining but weakly longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Clypeus more or less smooth. Mesosoma in overall impression smooth and shining; mesonotum with scattered, praescutellum and scutellum with more numerous, shallow foveolae of 10 - 15 mm diameter and glabrous interspaces; lateral area of metapleuron longitudinally carinulate-rugulose. Petiole in profile with caudomediodorsal corner, wider than in related species: PEW/PPW 0.735. Postpetiole in dorsal view with deeply concave anterior margin, its sternite with conspicuous anteromedian corner. Head and postpetiole medium to dark brown. Mesosoma and petiole yellow to darker yellowish brown, warm yellowish tinge even in darkest specimens well-expressed. Gaster dark to blackish brown. Brightness contrast between dorsal head and lateral area of mesosoma notable, PigCap/PigMes 1.50 ± 0.25 [1.25, 2.00].

Type Material

Seifert (2003) - Cardiocondyla elegans var. bulgarica: 4 syntype workers and 2 syntype gynes, labelled “C. elegans var. bulgarica Forel, 16 VIII, Anchialo (Bulgarien)”, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle Genève Geneve. 1 worker and 1 syntype gyne, labelled “Anchialo”, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna Wien. 5 syntype workers, labelled “Sozopolis 15 VIII, type bulgarica”, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel.


  • Atanassov, N.; Dlussky, G. M. 1992. Fauna of Bulgaria. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Fauna Bûlg. 22: 1-310 (page 174, Raised to species)
  • Radchenko, A. G. 1995g. Palearctic ants of the genus Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Entomol. Obozr. 74: 447-455 (page 449, Junior synonym of elegans)

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Agosti, D. and C.A. Collingwood. 1987. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) and a key to the worker caste. I. Synonymic list. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 60: 51-62
  • Borowiec L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2): 1-340.
  • Borowiec L., and S. Salata. 2012. Ants of Greece - Checklist, comments and new faunistic data (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus 23(4): 461-563.
  • Bracko G., H. C. Wagner, A. Schulz, E. Gioahim, J. Maticic, and A. Tratnik. 2014. New investigation and a revised checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Republic of Macedonia. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10(1): 10-24.
  • Bracko G., K. Kiran, C. Karaman, S. Salata, and L. Borowiec. 2016. Survey of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Greek Thrace. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7945. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.4.e7945
  • Czechowski W., A. Radchenko, W. Czechowska and K. Vepsäläinen. 2012. The ants of Poland with reference to the myrmecofauna of Europe. Fauna Poloniae 4. Warsaw: Natura Optima Dux Foundation, 1-496 pp
  • Forel A. 1911. Fourmis nouvelles ou intéressantes. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 47: 331-400.
  • Lapeva-Gjonova, L., V. Antonova, A. G. Radchenko, and M. Atanasova. "Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria." ZooKeys 62 (2010): 1-124.
  • Salata S., and L. Borowiec. 2018. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Greek ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom Entomology 27: 1-51.
  • Seifert B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. B, Botanik, Zoologie 104: 203-338.
  • Seifert, B.. "The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica. C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups." Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 104B (2003): 203-338.