Brachymyrmex musculus

Every Ant Tells a Story - And Scientists Explain Their Stories Here
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Brachymyrmex musculus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Formicinae
Tribe: Myrmelachistini
Genus: Brachymyrmex
Species: B. musculus
Binomial name
Brachymyrmex musculus
Forel, 1899

Brachymyrmex musculus casent0906245 p 1 high.jpg

Brachymyrmex musculus casent0906245 d 1 high.jpg

Specimen Labels



This introduced species occurs throughout Florida, achieving its highest densities in northern areas of the state. It usually occurs in disturbed areas, but seems to thrive in some pine plantations. Nests are under loose bark, or at the bases of pine trees, occasionally arboreal, or under shingles. First reported in the U.S. (Louisiana) in 1978 (Wheeler and Wheeler 1978). Note that the identity of this species and virtually all other Brachymyrmex is problematical and confirmation of the occurrence of this species in the United States needs confirmation. Pest status: occasionally enters open buildings in large numbers. No previous published Florida records; earlier specimens: 1988. (Deyrup, Davis & Cover, 2000.)

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Neotropical Region: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica (type locality), Mexico, Paraguay, Venezuela.

Distribution based on AntMaps


Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb


Deyrup, Davis & Cover (2000): This species seems to adapt well to open pine forests (high pine and flatwoods habitats) in north Florida, as well as to the usual open disturbed areas favored by many exotics. Huge nests may be found in the loose bark at the bases of large pine trees, a nesting site also favored by native species of Paratrechina, Pheidole, Solenopsis and Brachymyrmex. The diet of B. musculus is unknown, except that they eagerly feed on honeydew, and are therefore likely to promote the increase of sap sucking insects.



The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • musculus. Brachymyrmex tristis r. musculus Forel, 1899c: 124 (w.) COSTA RICA.
    • Forel, 1901c: 135 (q.).
    • Status as species: Forel, 1901c: 135; Santschi, 1923b: 673; Emery, 1925b: 43; Menozzi, 1927c: 268; Kempf, 1972a: 40; Bolton, 1995b: 82; Deyrup, et al. 2000: 301; Deyrup, 2003: 44; MacGown & Forster, 2005: 65; Fernández & Ortiz-Sepúlveda, 2019: 728; Ortiz-Sepúlveda, et al. 2019: 514 (redescription).



References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Dattilo W. et al. 2019. MEXICO ANTS: incidence and abundance along the Nearctic-Neotropical interface. Ecology
  • Fernandes, P.R. XXXX. Los hormigas del suelo en Mexico: Diversidad, distribucion e importancia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
  • Fernández, F. and S. Sendoya. 2004. Lista de las hormigas neotropicales. Biota Colombiana Volume 5, Number 1.
  • Forster J.A. 2005. The Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. Master of Science, Auburn University. 242 pages.
  • Hernandez, F. Varela and G. Castano-Meneses. 2010. Checklist, Biological Notes and Distribution of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve, Hidalgo, Mexico. Sociobiology 56(2):397-434
  • Kempf, W.W. 1972. Catalago abreviado das formigas da regiao Neotropical (Hym. Formicidae) Studia Entomologica 15(1-4).
  • Maes, J.-M. and W.P. MacKay. 1993. Catalogo de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 23.
  • Ortiz-Sepuvelda C. M., B. Van Bocxlaer, A. D. Meneses, and F. Fernandez. 2019. Molecular and morphological recognition of species boundaries in the neglected ant genus Brachymyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): toward a taxonomic revision. Organisms Diversity & Evolution
  • Perfecto I., and J. Vandermeer. 1996. Microclimatic changes and the indirect loss of ant diversity in a tropical agroecosystem. Oecologia 108: 577-582.
  • Rivas-Arancibia, S. P., H. Carrillo-Ruiz, A. Bonilla-Arce, D. M. Figueroa-Castro, and A. R. Andres-Hernandez. 2014. Effect of disturbance on the ant community in a semiarid region of central Mexico. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 12: 703-716.
  • Valenzuela-González J., Quiroz-Robledo L. y Martínez-Tlapa D. 2008. Capítulo 8. Hormigas (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae). En: Manson R., Hernández-Ortiz V., Gallina S y K. Mehltreter (eds) Agroecosistemas cafetaleros de Veracruz: biodiversidad, manejo y conservación.Instituto de Ecología A.C.-Instituto Nacional de Ecología (INE-SEMARNAT). P.107-121. ISBN 970-709-112-6.
  • Vásquez-Bolaños M. 2011. Lista de especies de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) para México. Dugesiana 18: 95-133