Aphaenogaster tennesseensis

AntWiki: The Ants --- Online
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Aphaenogaster tennesseensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Formicidae
Subfamily: Myrmicinae
Tribe: Stenammini
Genus: Aphaenogaster
Species: A. tennesseensis
Binomial name
Aphaenogaster tennesseensis
(Mayr, 1862)

Aphaenogaster tennesseensis casent0103600 profile 1.jpg

Aphaenogaster tennesseensis casent0103600 dorsal 1.jpg

Specimen Label

Synonyms

This species is presumed to be a temporary parasite in ground nests of other species of Aphaenogaster, including Aphaenogaster fulva, Aphaenogaster picea and Aphaenogaster rudis (Smith, 1979). Workers forage on trees and nest in rotting wood.

At a Glance • Temporary parasite  

 

Photo Gallery

  • Foraging worker from Antrim, New Hampshire. Photo by Tom Murray.
  • Portrait of a social parasite, Aphaenogaster tennesseensis. Urbana, Illinois, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.
  • Socially parasitic ants are usually describable by their relatively small queens, as ants that start new colonies by infiltrating existing nests do note need large body reserves. The queen of A. tennesseensis - a temporary nest-founding parasite of several other woodland Aphaenogaster - is scarcely larger than their own workers. Urbana, Illinois, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.
  • This parasitic A. tennesseensis queen has just penetrated a nest of her host species. Aphaenogaster rudis. She is highly attractive to her victims, who unknowingly tend her and begin raising her eggs as their own. The original host queen killed, this colony will gradually turn into a full nest of A. tennesseensis, Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.
  • A worker tending brood, including both pupae and mature larvae. Urbana, Illinois, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.
  • Aphaenogaster tennesseensis with eggs and young larvae. The difference in color between the two adult ants is due to their age, as ants darken over time. Urbana, Illinois, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.
  • On the underside of a sun-soaked leaf, Aphaenogaster tennesseensis tending to Entylia sp. treehoppers. The treehoppers secrete sweet honeydew for the ants in exchange for protection from parasites and predators. The spiky-looking bugs are the immature stages of the larger shield-shaped insects. Lake Glendale, Illinois, USA. Photo by Alex Wild.

Identification

Workers are relatively large, dark reddish-brown, with heavy sculpture, long curved propodeal spines, and have the postpetiole broader than long and suboval in shape. The queens are very distinctive looking and are almost entirely smooth, lacking any obvious sculpture, and have long blunt tipped propodeal spines.

This ant is easily diagnosed by its lack of hair on the mesosoma and metasoma, and by the propodeal spines that curve back towards the gaster (DeMarco, 2015).

Florida

Deyrup (2016) - This species has a protuberance on the ventral side of the postpetiole, and coarse irregular ridges on the mesopleuron, both features shared by Aphaenogaster mariae. It lacks the long, fine ridges at the base of the first gastral tergite found in A. mariae. Aphaenogaster tennesseensis differs from all other Florida species in the lack of any erect hairs on the mesosoma, petiole, postpetiole, and gaster. It is also distinguished by its extraordinarily long propodeal spines, which are thick at the base and somewhat curved, tapering to a sharp point. In the field, tennesseensis might be mistaken for Aphaenogaster lamellidens.

Keys including this Species

Distribution

Florida

Deyrup (2016) - Quebec south into Florida, west into Minnesota and Oklahoma (Smith 1979). In Florida, tennesseensis is known from a few sites in the northern part of the state. It appears to be rare in Florida.

Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists

Nearctic Region: United States (type locality).


Distribution based on AntMaps

AntMapLegend.png

Distribution based on AntWeb specimens

Check data from AntWeb

Biology

Florida

Deyrup (2016) - This species usually occurs in mesic woodlands. It is believed to be a temporary nest parasite of other Aphaenogaster, on the basis of the small size and large spines of the queen, and the discovery of three small mixed colonies of tennesseensis and some species in the fulva—rudis complex (Wheeler 1910a). These colonies were found under stones, rather than in rotten wood, where mature colonies of tennesseensis occur (Wheeler 1910a). Nests may be in rotting stumps or logs, in standing dead trees, and in dead portions of live trees (Smith 1965). Mature colonies have several hundred to several thousand individuals (Smith 1965). The latter estimate would be unusually high for a species of eastern Aphaenogaster. Foraging is usually on the ground, where the workers collect small arthropods (Carroll 1975). Alates have been found in the nest in August (Carroll 1975).

Castes

Queen

Nomenclature

The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.

  • tennesseensis. Atta tennesseensis Mayr, 1862: 743 (w.) U.S.A. (Tennessee).
    • Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 411 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953b: 61 (l.).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 30;
    • combination in Stenamma (Aphaenogaster): Emery, 1895c: 301;
    • combination in Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma): Emery, 1921f: 60.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 30; Mayr, 1863: 397; Forel, 1886b: xli; Mayr, 1886d: 443 (in key); Cresson, 1887: 260; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Emery, 1895c: 301; Wheeler, W.M. 1904e: 303; Wheeler, W.M. 1905f: 382; Wheeler, W.M. 1906b: 4; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 565; Wheeler, W.M. 1913c: 114; Wheeler, W.M. 1916m: 586; Wheeler, W.M. 1917i: 461; Emery, 1921f: 60; Menozzi, 1932b: 311; Smith, M.R. 1932: 160; Dennis, 1938: 287; Wesson, L.G. & Wesson, R.G. 1940: 94; Buren, 1944a: 285; Creighton, 1950a: 151; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 797; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 118; Carter, 1962a: 6 (in list); Kutter, 1968b: 203; Francoeur, 1977b: 207; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1362; DuBois & LaBerge, 1988: 137; Deyrup, et al. 1989: 95; Wheeler, G.C., et al. 1994: 302; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Deyrup, 2003: 44; Coovert, 2005: 50; MacGown & Forster, 2005: 71; Ellison, et al. 2012: 232; Deyrup, 2017: 51; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407 (redescription).
    • Senior synonym of ecalcaratum: Creighton, 1950a: 151; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 118; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1363; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.
    • Senior synonym of laevis: Mayr, 1886d: 446; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Emery, 1895c: 301; Emery, 1921f: 60; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 796; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1362; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Coovert, 2005: 50; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.
    • Senior synonym of subrubra: Mayr, 1886c: 365; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Emery, 1895c: 301; Wheeler, 1902f: 26; Emery, 1921f: 60; Creighton, 1950a: 151; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 796; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1363; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.
  • ecalcaratum. Stenamma (Aphaenogaster) tennesseense var. ecalcaratum Emery, 1895c: 301 (w.) U.S.A. (New Hampshire).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma): Emery, 1921f: 60.
    • Subspecies of tennesseensis: Wheeler, W.M. 1906b: 5; Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 565; Emery, 1921f: 60; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 797.
    • Junior synonym of tennesseensis: Creighton, 1950a: 151; Smith, M.R. 1958c: 118; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1363; Bolton, 1995b: 69; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.
  • epinotalis. Aphaenogaster relicta subsp. epinotalis Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1914: 27, figs. 8a,b (w.) HAITI.
    • Combination in Novomessor (Novomessor): Emery, 1921f: 67;
    • combination in Veromessor: Wheeler, W.M. & Creighton, 1934: 384; Kempf, 1972a: 257;
    • combination in Aphaenogaster: Bolton, 1995b: 69.
    • Subspecies of relicta: Emery, 1921f: 67; Wheeler, W.M. & Creighton, 1934: 384; Wheeler, W.M. 1936b: 198; Enzmann, J. 1947b: 151 (in key); Kempf, 1972a: 257; Bolton, 1995b: 69; Lubertazzi, 2019: 75 (error).
    • Junior synony of relicta: Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 375.
  • laevis. Atta laevis Mayr, 1862: 743 (q.) U.S.A. (Tennessee).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Roger, 1863b: 30.
    • Status as species: Roger, 1863b: 30; Mayr, 1863: 396.
    • Junior synonym of tennesseensis: Mayr, 1886d: 446; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Emery, 1895c: 301; Emery, 1921f: 60; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 796; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1362; Bolton, 1995b: 70; Coovert, 2005: 50; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.
  • subrubra. Myrmica subrubra Buckley, 1867: 336 (w.q.) U.S.A. (District of Columbia, Virginia).
    • Combination in Aphaenogaster: Cresson, 1887: 260.
    • Status as species: Cresson, 1887: 260 (error).
    • Junior synonym of tennesseensis: Mayr, 1886c: 365; Dalla Torre, 1893: 107; Emery, 1895c: 301; Wheeler, 1902f: 26; Emery, 1921f: 60; Creighton, 1950a: 151; Smith, M.R. 1951a: 796; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1363; Bolton, 1995b: 73; Mackay & Mackay, 2017: 407.

Description

References

References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics

  • Burrill A. C., and M. R. Smith. 1919. A key to the species of Wisconsin ants, with notes on their habits. Ohio Journal of Science 19: 279-292.
  • Canadensys Database. Dowloaded on 5th February 2014 at http://www.canadensys.net/
  • Cole A. C. 1940. A Guide to the Ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. American Midland Naturalist 24(1): 1-88.
  • Cole A. C. 1953. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science. 28: 34-35.
  • Coovert G. A. 2005. The Ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ohio Biological Survey, Inc. 15(2): 1-207.
  • Coovert, G.A. 2005. The Ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series Volume 15(2):1-196
  • Crevecoeur F. F. 1919. Additions to the list of Kansas Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 30: 385-388.
  • Dash S. T. and L. M. Hooper-Bui. 2008. Species diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana. Conservation Biology and Biodiversity. 101: 1056-1066
  • DeMarco B. B., and A. I. Cognato. 2016. A multiple-gene phylogeny reveals polyphyly among eastern North American Aphaenogaster species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoologica Scripta DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12168
  • Del Toro, I. 2010. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION. MUSEUM RECORDS COLLATED BY ISRAEL DEL TORO
  • Deyrup M. 1998. Smithistruma memorialis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a new species of ant from the Kentucky Cumberland Plateau. Entomological News 109: 81-87.
  • Deyrup M., C. Johnson, G. C. Wheeler, J. Wheeler. 1989. A preliminary list of the ants of Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 91-101
  • Downing H., and J. Clark. 2018. Ant biodiversity in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 91(2): 119-132.
  • DuBois M. B. 1981. New records of ants in Kansas, III. State Biological Survey of Kansas. Technical Publications 10: 32-44
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-381
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-382
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-383
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-384
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-385
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-386
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-387
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-388
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-389
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-390
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-391
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-392
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-393
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-394
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-395
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-396
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-397
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-398
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-399
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-400
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-401
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-402
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-403
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-404
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-405
  • DuBois M. B. 1985. Distribution of ants in Kansas: subfamilies Ponerinae, Ecitoninae, and Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 11: 153-406
  • Dubois, M.B. and W.E. Laberge. 1988. An Annotated list of the ants of Illionois. pages 133-156 in Advances in Myrmecology, J. Trager
  • Emery C. 1895. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Ameisenfauna. (Schluss). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8: 257-360.
  • Forster J.A. 2005. The Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. Master of Science, Auburn University. 242 pages.
  • Frye J. A., T. Frye, and T. W. Suman. 2014. The ant fauna of inland sand dune communities in Worcester County, Maryland. Northeastern Naturalist, 21(3): 446-471.
  • General D., and L. Thompson. 2008. New distributional records of ants in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 62: 148-150.
  • General D.M. & Thompson L.C. 2008. New Distributional Records of Ants in Arkansas for 2008. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 63: 182-184
  • Gibbs M. M., P. L. Lambdin, J. F. Grant, and A. M. Saxton. 2003. Ground-inhabiting ants collected in a mixed hardwood southern Appalachian forest in Eastern Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 78(2): 45-49.
  • Gregg R. E. 1945 (1944). The ants of the Chicago region. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 37: 447-480
  • Guénard B., K. A. Mccaffrey, A. Lucky, and R. R. Dunn. 2012. Ants of North Carolina: an updated list (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3552: 1-36.
  • Headley A. E. 1943. The ants of Ashtabula County, Ohio (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). The Ohio Journal of Science 43(1): 22-31.
  • Heithaus R. E., and M. Humes. 2003. Variation in Communities of Seed-Dispersing Ants in Habitats with Different Disturbance in Knox County, Ohio. OHIO J. SCI. 103 (4): 89-97.
  • Ipser R. M. 2004. Native and exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Georgia: Ecological Relationships with implications for development of biologically-based management strategies. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Georgia. 165 pages.
  • Ipser, R.M., M.A. Brinkman, W.A. Gardner and H.B. Peeler. 2004. A Survey of Ground-Dwelling Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Georgia. The Florida Entomologist 87(3) 253-260.
  • Ivanov K. 2019. The ants of Ohio (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): an updated checklist. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 70: 65–87.
  • Ivanov K., L. Hightower, S. T. Dash, and J. B. Keiper. 2019. 150 years in the making: first comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Virginia, USA. Zootaxa 4554 (2): 532–560.
  • Kjar D. 2009. The ant community of a riparian forest in the Dyke Marsh Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginiam and a checklist of Mid-Atlantic Formicidae. Banisteria 33: 3-17.
  • Kjar D., and Z. Park. 2016. Increased ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) incidence and richness are associated with alien plant cover in a small mid-Atlantic riparian forest. Myrmecological News 22: 109-117.
  • Longino, J.T. 2010. Personal Communication. Longino Collection Database
  • Lubertazi, D. Personal Communication. Specimen Data from Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard
  • Lynch J. F. 1988. An annotated checklist and key to the species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Chesapeake Bay region. The Maryland Naturalist 31: 61-106
  • MacGown J. A., J. G. Hill, and R. L. Brown. 2010. Native and exotic ant in Mississippi state parks. Proceedings: Imported Fire Ant Conference, Charleston, South Carolina, March 24-26, 2008: 74-80.
  • MacGown, J.A and J.A. Forster. 2005. A preliminary list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama, U.S.A. Entomological News 116(2):61-74
  • MacGown, J.A. and JV.G. Hill. Ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina).
  • MacGown. J. 2011. Ants collected during the 25th Annual Cross Expedition at Tims Ford State Park, Franklin County, Tennessee
  • Macgown J. A., S. Y. Wang, J. G. Hill, and R. J. Whitehouse. 2017. A List of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Collected During the 2017 William H. Cross Expedition to the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas with New State Records. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 143(4): 735-740.
  • Mahon M. B., K. U. Campbell, and T. O. Crist. 2017. Effectiveness of Winkler litter extraction and pitfall traps in sampling ant communities and functional groups in a temperate forest. Environmental Entomology 46(3): 470–479.
  • Menke S. B., E. Gaulke, A. Hamel, and N. Vachter. 2015. The effects of restoration age and prescribed burns on grassland ant community structure. Environmental Entomology http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv110
  • Moody J. V., and O. F. Francke. 1982. The Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Western Texas Part 1: Subfamily Myrmicinae. Graduate Studies Texas Tech University 27: 80 pp.
  • O'Keefe S. T., J. L. Cook, T. Dudek, D. F. Wunneburger, M. D. Guzman, R. N. Coulson, and S. B. Vinson. 2000. The Distribution of Texas Ants. The Southwestern Entomologist 22: 1-92.
  • O'Neill J.C. and Dowling A.P.G. 2011. A Survey of the Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Arkansas and the Ozark Mountains. An Undergraduate Honors, University of Arkansas. 18pages.
  • Smith M. R. 1935. A list of the ants of Oklahoma (Hymen.: Formicidae). Entomological News 46: 235-241.
  • Smith M. R. 1965. House-infesting ants of the eastern United States. Their recognition, biology, and economic importance. United States Department of Agriculture. Technical Bulletin 1326: 1-105.
  • Talbot M. 1976. A list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Edwin S. George Reserve, Livingston County, Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 8: 245-246.
  • Toennisson T. A., N. J. Sanders, W. E. Klingeman, and K. M. Vail. 2011. Influences on the Structure of Suburban Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities and the Abundance of Tapinoma sessile. Environ. Entomol. 40(6): 1397-1404.
  • Van Pelt A., and J. B. Gentry. 1985. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Dept. Energy, Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC., Report SRO-NERP-14, 56 p.
  • Warren, L.O. and E.P. Rouse. 1969. The Ants of Arkansas. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station 742:1-67
  • Wheeler G. C., J. N. Wheeler, and P. B. Kannowski. 1994. Checklist of the ants of Michigan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 26(4): 297-310
  • Wheeler G. C., and J. Wheeler J. 1989. A checklist of the ants of Oklahoma. Prairie Naturalist 21: 203-210.
  • Wheeler W. M. 1906. Fauna of New England. 7. List of the Formicidae. Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 7: 1-24.
  • Wheeler, G.C. and J. Wheeler. 1985. A checklist of Texas ants. Prairie Naturalist 17:49-64.
  • Wheeler, G.C., J. Wheeler and P.B. Kannowski. 1994. CHECKLIST OF THE ANTS OF MICHIGAN (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE). Great Lakes Entomologist 26:1:297-310
  • Yitbarek S., J. H. Vandermeer, and D. Allen. 2011. The Combined Effects of Exogenous and Endogenous Variability on the Spatial Distribution of Ant Communities in a Forested Ecosystem (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol. 40(5): 1067-1073.
  • Young J., and D. E. Howell. 1964. Ants of Oklahoma. Miscellaneous Publication. Oklahoma Agricultural Experimental Station 71: 1-42.
  • Young, J. and D.E. Howell. 1964. Ants of Oklahoma. Miscellaneous Publications of Oklahoma State University MP-71