Nothing is known about the biology of this species.
Keys including this Species
- Key to Anochetus of the Philippines
- Key to the Anochetus Species of Asia, Melanesia and the Pacific Region
Latitudinal Distribution Pattern
Latitudinal Range: 14.66841574° to -7.0209°.
- Source: AntMaps
Distribution based on Regional Taxon Lists
Distribution based on AntMaps
Distribution based on AntWeb specimens
Check data from AntWeb
|Number of countries occupied by this species based on AntWiki Regional Taxon Lists. In general, fewer countries occupied indicates a narrower range, while more countries indicates a more widespread species.|
|Relative abundance based on number of AntMaps records per species (this species within the purple bar). Fewer records (to the left) indicates a less abundant/encountered species while more records (to the right) indicates more abundant/encountered species.|
|.||Owned by Museum of Comparative Zoology.|
The following information is derived from Barry Bolton's Online Catalogue of the Ants of the World.
- modicus. Anochetus modicus Brown, 1978c: 582 (w.q.m.) BORNEO (no state data, “Moaratoa I., Borneo E.”), INDONESIA (Java), PHILIPPINES (Negros I.).
- Type-material: holotype worker, 8 paratype workers, 2 paratype queens, 1 paratype male.
- Type-locality: holotype Borneo: Moaratoa I. (E. Mjöberg); paratypes: 4 workers, 1 queen with same data, 3 workers Indonesia: Java, Tjibodas (no collector’s name), 1 worker, 1 male Philippines: Negros I., Cuernos Mts, nr Dumaguete, Chapman’s Camp (J.W. Chapman), 1 queen with same data as last but 4000 ft (J.W. Chapman).
- [Note: Borneo type-locality perhaps Indonesia: Kalimantan, Maratua I., after Brown, 1978c: 584.]
- Type-depository: MCZC.
- Imai, et al. 1985: 47 (k.).
- Status as species: Bolton, 1995b: 65; Jaitrong & Nabhitabhata, 2005: 13; Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 55; Zettel, 2012: 159 (in key).
- Distribution: Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan), Philippines (Negros), Thailand.
Unless otherwise noted the text for the remainder of this section is reported from the publication that includes the original description.
Holotype worker Museum of Comparative Zoology and 4 paratype workers with one callow alate queen from Moaratoa lsl[and], Borneo, [E.] Mjöberg. I have not been able to find a locality with this exact name on maps, charts, or gazetteers of the Borneo area. Moara in Malay means mouth of river. The most similar island name I located is Maratua Island, for an atoll including a hill in the Celebes Sea southeast of Tarakan, off the east coast of Kalimantan Timur (Indonesian Borneo), but I am not at all certain whether this is the same as Mjöberg's locality. Other paratypes (MCZ) are 3 workers from Tjibodas, Java, 1400 m (without collector's name, but one specimen carrying the label jumping ant; also the single worker with one male from Chapman's Camp, at about 1100 m in the Cuernos Mts., near Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines (J. W. Chapman). A single dealate queen also comes from 4000 ft. (about 1220 m) in the Cuernos Mts. (Chapman).
This species is similar to several species of the risii group; in fact, it is as nearly average a form for the group as one could hope to find. The very short, straplike, mesonotal disc is one distinctive feature; the mandibles are longer than in Anochetus brevis, and its much more restricted frontal striation will distinguish modicus from Anochetus strigatellus; the smooth, shining pronotum separates it from the similar-sized Anochetus incultus. Probably A. modicus will be found eventually to be a widespread species in wet upland forests of the Sunda islands.
Holotype: TL 5:9, HL 1.45, HW 1.25, ML 0.84, WL 1.90, scape L 1.17, eye L 0.21 mm; CI 86, M.I 58.
Color rich, bright, brownish-red; corners of head, mandibles, antennae, legs, petiole and gastric apex lighter, more yellowish. A member of the Anochetus risii group in habitus, mandibular form and armament, and body sculpture, but differing from Anochetus risii, apart from smaller size and darker color, in the relatively shorter mandibles, scapes and eyes, as well as the following:
1. Scapes surpass posterior margins of occipital lobes by an amount less than the length of the first funicular segment.
2. Mesonotal disc reduced to a mere smooth, transversely straplike, raised strip, 4 times or more wider than long, limiting the strong longitudinal costulae of the metanotal saddle anteriorly.
3. Petiolar node smooth, moderately stout, almost perfectly erect, narrowly rounded at apex, but more broadly so than in risii, and not nippled; as seen in side view outline, both anterior and posterior slopes gently convex; base of petiole horizontally costulate. and with a brief anterior peduncle.
Body shining. Frontal striation weak, extending only a short way beyond frontal carinae caudad, not fanning out widely, leaving most of central vertex smooth and shining. Pronotum smooth and shining, the only distinct sculpture, aside from occasional faint traces of lateral striae, and some piligerous punctures, is the usual transverse striation of cervix, becoming coarser, more costulate, on base of anterior slope of pronotal disc. Meso- and metapleura smooth and shining. the former with distinct transverse suture. Propodeal dorsum transversely costulate, the costulae irregular and about 30 in number, with 4-5 more on declivity. Gaster smooth and shining, narrowed behind basal segment, but not noticeably constricted.
Long, fine, erect and inclined hairs fairly numerous and generally distributed over dorsal surfaces, undersides of head and gaster, anterior side of front coxae, and scapes and legs; up to 0.25 mm long on pronotum and gastric dorsum, but mostly not much over 0.1 mm elsewhere. Pubescence fine, mostly restricted to appendages.
Worker variation, paratypes: Of the 9 workers available, 5, including the holotype, are from Moaratoa I., Borneo; 3 are from Tjibodas, Java; and 1 is from the Cuernos Mts., Negros I., Philippines. The combined measurements and indices for these are: TL 4.8-5.9, HL 1.21-1.45, HW 1.06-1.29, ML 0.71-0.87, WL 1.50-1.80, scape L 1.01-1.21, eye L 0.16-0.21 mm; CI 84-90, MI 58-62. The Moaratoa workers average larger (TL 5.7-5.9, HL 1.40-1.45, HW 1.22-1.24 mm; CI 86-90, MI 58), but have slightly shorter trunks (WL 1.73-1.74) than do the Javanese workers (WL 1.77-1.80), even though in other dimensions the latter are smaller: TL 5.5-5.7, HL 1.37-1.40, HW 1.15-1.18 mm; CI 84-86, MI 58-62.
The single Philippine worker is small (TL 4.8, HL 1.21, HW 1.06, WL 1.50 mm; CI 88, MI 59) and pale brownish-red in color, with the head slightly darker. Its petiolar node is a little more slender in side view than in the other 2 series.
While the Moaratoa series has fairly regular transverse costulation of the propodeal dorsum, the Tjibodas sample has the propodeal dorsum covered with mainly disoriented rugulation, showing only weak and partial organization into transverse costulae.
Paratypes: Two specimens, one a callow alate taken with the Moaratoa series, the other a dealate taken alone in the Cuernos Mts. of Negros I. at 4000 ft. (about 1220 m). Moaratoa I.: TL 6.9, HL 1.54, HW 1.40, ML 0.84, WL. 2.00, scape L. 1.17, eye L 0.32 mm; CI 91, MI 55. Cuernos Mts., Philippines: TL. 5.9, HL 1.31, HW 1.22, ML 0.78, WL 1.88, scape L 1.10, eye L 0.29 mm; CI 93, MI 60.
The Moaratoa queen is winged (forewing L about 4 mm) and dull, light reddish-brown in color (callow); the Philippine specimen is dealate and light brownish-yellow. Pronotum and mesonotum smooth and shining (faint traces of diagonal striation on side of pronotum in Moaratoa queen).
Single specimen mounted on same pin with worker from Cuernos Mts., Philippines: TL 4.4, HL 0.71, HW (including eyes) 0.92, ML (closed mandibles) 0.11, WL 1.62, forewing L 3.3 mm.
Color dark brown, gaster slightly paler, especially toward apex; antennae tan; legs, mouthparts and genital capsule sordid yellowish. Eyes taking up about 2/3 of sides of head. Lateral ocelli separated from eye by about 0.2 mm, and distant from anterior ocellus by about the diameter of the latter. Mandibles small, cuneiform as seen from above, acute, with conspicuous circular white basin at base.
Trunk robust, with convex dorsum and pleura; notauli obsolete, except for shallow longitudinal sulcus at rear of scutum; scutellum prominent, hemispherical; metanotum short, convex; propodeum convex, dorsum rounded into declivity; its spiracle very small, elliptical. Petiolar node subsquamiform; bluntly cuneiform as seen from side, with both anterior and posterior slopes slightly convex; sides convex, and apex rather broadly rounded as seen from in front. Gaster almost imperceptibly constricted after postpetiolar segment.
Terminalia unremarkable; pygidium folded, lightly sclerotized, and thus forming a barely acute beak; hypopygium narrow-linguiform, tapered to a truncate apex, its ventral surface convex. Parameres broadly subcuneiform in side view, with rounded apices; outer surfaces convex; bent slightly mesad just beyond their midlength as seen from dorsal view. Aedeagus thick; volsellae each with digitus and cuspis.
Tibial apices each with two spurs on middle and hind legs, of which the mesial spur of the hind leg is large and broadly pectinate. Hind wing with a well-developed anal lobe.
Entire body weakly to moderately shining, mostly smooth, with numerous fine piligerous punctures; additional fine shagreening around the periphery of the scutum, on anterolateral faces of propodeum, etc.
Virtually the entire, normally-exposed body surface and appendages covered with a short, dense, pubescence-like investiture, decumbent on extremities of appendages, but becoming erect or suberect on mesonotum and elsewhere. A few longer (but still short and fine) hairs on ocellar triangle (otherwise nearly bare, and very smooth), on anterior cheeks, on metanotum, on apex of petiolar node, and toward gastric apex.
- n = 15, 2n = 30 (Indonesia) (Imai et al., 1985; Mariano et al., 2015).
- Aguiar, H.J.A.C., Barros, L.A.C., Silveira, L.I., Petitclerc, F., Etienne, S., Orivel, J. 2020. Cytogenetic data for sixteen ant species from North-eastern Amazonia with phylogenetic insights into three subfamilies. Comparative Cytogenetics 14(1): 43–60 (doi:10.3897/CompCytogen.v14i1.46692).
- Brown, W. L., Jr. 1978c. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Stud. Entomol. 20: 549-638 (page 582, worker, queen, male described)
- Imai, H. T.; Kubota, M.; Brown, W. L., Jr.; Ihara, M.; Tohari, M.; Pranata, R. I. 1985. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from Indonesia. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 35: 46-48 (page 47, karyotype described)
- Khachonpisitsak, S., Yamane, S., Sriwichai, P., Jaitrong, W. 2020. An updated checklist of the ants of Thailand (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 998, 1–182 (doi:10.3897/zookeys.998.54902).
- Mariano, C.S.F., Santos, I.S., Silva, J.G., Costa, M.A., Pompolo, S.G. 2015. Citogenética e evolução do cariótipo em formigas poneromorfas. In: Delabie, J.H.C., Feitosa, R.M., Serrao, J.E., Mariano, C.S.F., Majer, J.D. (eds) As formigas poneromorfas do Brasil, 1st edn. Ilhéus, Brasil, pp 102–125 (doi:10.7476/9788574554419.0010).
- Ngô-Muller V., Garrouste R., Schubnel T., Pouillon J.-M., Christophersen V., Christophersen N., Nel A. 2021. The first representative of the trap-jaw ant genus Anochetus Mayr, 1861 in Neogene amber from Sumatra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Comptes Rendus Palevol 20(2): 21-27 (doi:10.5852/cr-palevol2021v20a2).
References based on Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics
- Brown Jr., W.L. 1978. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, Tribe Ponerini, Subtribe Odontomachiti, Section B. Genus Anochetus and Bibliography. Studia Entomologia 20(1-4): 549-XXX
- Brown W.L. Jr. 1978. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Studia Ent. 20(1-4): 549-638.
- Imai H. T., M. Kubota, W. L. Brown, Jr., M. Ihara, M. Tohari, and R. I. Pranata. 1985. Chromosome observations on tropical ants from Indonesia. Annu. Rep. Natl. Inst. Genet. Jpn. 35: 46-48.
- Ito, F.; Yamane, S.; Eguchi, K.; Noerdjito, W. A.; Kahono, S.; Tsuji, K.; Ohkawara, K.; Yamauchi, K.; Nishida, T.; Nakamura, K. 2001. Ant species diversity in the Bogor Botanic Garden, West Java, Indonesia, with descriptions of two new species of the genus Leptanilla (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Tropics 10:379-404.
- Jaitrong W.; Nabhitabhata, J. 2005. A list of known ant species of Thailand. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 1(1): 9-54.
- Pfeiffer M.; Mezger, D.; Hosoishi, S.; Bakhtiar, E. Y.; Kohout, R. J. 2011. The Formicidae of Borneo (Insecta: Hymenoptera): a preliminary species list. Asian Myrmecology 4:9-58